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The Scorching Ray spell reads (PHB, p. 273; emphasis mine):

You create three rays of fire and hurl them at targets within range. You can hurl them at one target or several. Make a ranged spell attack for each ray. On a hit, the target takes 2d6 fire damage.

The Metamagic Seeking Spell states (TCE, p. 66; emphasis mine):

If you make an attack roll for a spell and miss, you can spend 2 sorcery points to reroll the d20, and you must use the new roll. You can use Seeking Spell even if you have already used a different Metamagic option during the casting of the spell.

So, my question is: Can you use the Seeking Spell Metamagic on each roll of Scorching Ray?

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No, you can't

The description of the Metamagic feature states the following:

You can use only one Metamagic option on a spell when you cast it, unless otherwise noted.

That is a general rule which can be overriden by specific text. But the Metamagic option Seeking Spell doesn't entirely override it (TCoE, p. 66; emphasis mine):

You can use Seeking Spell even if you have already used a different Metamagic option during the casting of the spell.

The word "different" is the reason why it won't work. You can pair it up with a different Metamagic option, such as Empowered Spell or Quickened Spell. But once you have used Seeking Spell, you can't use it again on the same spellcasting, as it isn't a different Metamagic option.

As Medix2 pointed out in a comment on this answer, this is confirmed in the Sage Advice Compendium:

Metamagic rules state you can’t use multiple Metamagic options on a single spell. Can you use one option multiple times?

A sorcerer can use one Metamagic option once in the casting of a spell, not the same option more than once. For instance, a sorcerer can’t quadruple the duration of a spell by spending 2 sorcery points on Extended Spell.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thank you @Allan Mills for clarifying it. In that case I will go for Quickened Spell instead then. \$\endgroup\$
    – Kallenz
    Commented Sep 28, 2021 at 23:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ This is wrong, because Seeking Spell is not used when you cast the spell, but when you miss with an attack roll with a spell, so it's not limited by the rule limiting you to one Metamagic option when you cast a spell. \$\endgroup\$
    – nick012000
    Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 13:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ @nick012000 That's a very interesting point! It might be worth creating an answer to that effect. The only problem I see is that there's a Metamagic option which existed when the Sage Advice Compendium answer was given that has similarly vague timing: "Empowered Spell" (PHB, p. 102) which states "When you roll damage for a spell, you can spend 1 sorcery point to reroll... You can use Empowered Spell even if you have already used a different Metamagic option during the casting of the spell." If Sage Advice's answer applies to Empowered Spell, doesn't it also applies to Seeking Spell? \$\endgroup\$ Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 14:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ @nick012000 That was exactly the root of my question. It makes sense in my mind, but you use Metamagics only when you cast a spell, unless otherwise stated. Therefore, you can use Seeking Spell on a spell only once, in other words you can reroll only one d20. \$\endgroup\$
    – Kallenz
    Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 15:20
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Kallenz Nope, I'm pretty sure you can use it as many times as you want on a single spell, as long as you keep missing your attack rolls, and you have the points to pay for its use. The trigger is missing an attack roll with a spell, so whenever that happens, you can use the metamagic. \$\endgroup\$
    – nick012000
    Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 15:21
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Sage advice clearly rules it out:

Metamagic rules state you can’t use multiple Metamagic options on a single spell. Can you use one option multiple times?

A sorcerer can use one Metamagic option once in the casting of a spell, not the same option more than once. For instance, a sorcerer can’t quadruple the duration of a spell by spending 2 sorcery points on Extended Spell.

But the wording for metamagic in the actual rules:

You can use only one Metamagic option on a spell when you cast it, unless otherwise noted.

restricts how many Metamagic options you can use (one), not how many times you can use it.

For example, a duel might restrict me to using one sword in a fight, but that doesn't say I can't swing it 3 times.

Under that reading, you can use the same Metamagic option more than once. However, there are consequences to this reading that might result in poor results in other metamagics.

For one thing, you can extend a spell that was already extended, you can double then redouble and redouble using more sorcery points. That can get ridiculous; having a 1 minute spell that lasts 24 hours for 11 metamagic points is probably not intended.

Applying the rule of spell stacking (when two spells cause the same effect, they don't add up, only the greater one applies) to metamagic effects removes this problem, as doubling something and doubling again using an identical effect just ends up with it being doubled.

The other possible concern is that the reading would let you apply the same metamagic to the same ray more than once; but the "you must use the new roll" prevents that here. (Most reroll mechanics do this, and prevents them from stacking in general).

So, RAW, there is a reasonable reading that lets you do it. By Sage Advice, you cannot. But if you follow the reasonable reading that permits you to do it on more than once, you do have to also apply some "stacking" rules to prevent other metamagic from getting out of hand.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Now I am even more confused and my question remains because I just wanted to pay the Sorcery Points to reroll every missing ray once. I might suggest it as a house rule then. \$\endgroup\$
    – Kallenz
    Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 15:28
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Kallenz It disagrees with Sage Advice, which are either errata or the personal house rules of one of the D&D developers, depending on your perspective. \$\endgroup\$
    – Yakk
    Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 16:09
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Kallenz: From a game design perspective, the problem is stacking an effect with itself (e.g. re-doubling the duration or range). Separately affecting already-separate hit rolls, even though they came from a single spell, doesn't seem over-powered, and doesn't seem like something the rules were trying to rule out. Note that the Sage Advice ruling was made for a case where it was stacking, and often Sage Advice is thinking about that one case, not always the fully general possibility of the words they choose. (A spell like Scorching Ray which doesn't hit hard is particularly innocent here.) \$\endgroup\$ Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 18:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Kallenz: But as worded, RAW it seems to rule this out unless you reinterpret the wording in a way that does open up exploits. So if you want to house-rule this, you should tweak Seeking Spell to allow multiple uses of it on the same spell, just not on the same roll. (I think most people would agree that's compatible with the design intent, and totally fine unless you're trying to justify this for Adventurer's League play where everything must be fully RAW.) \$\endgroup\$ Commented Sep 29, 2021 at 19:02

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