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The School of Enchantment wizard's level 2 feature, Hypnotic Gaze, can incapacitate a creature until the Wizard's next turn:

Starting at 2nd level when you choose this school, your soft words and enchanting gaze can magically enthrall another creature. As an action, choose one creature that you can see within 5 feet of you. If the target can see or hear you, it must succeed on a Wisdom saving throw against your wizard spell save DC or be charmed by you until the end of your next turn. The charmed creature's speed drops to 0, and the creature is incapacitated and visibly dazed.

Moreover, the effect can be extended for additional turns (emphasis mine):

On subsequent turns, you can use your action to maintain this effect, extending its duration until the end of your next turn. However, the effect ends if you move more than 5 feet away from the creature, if the creature can neither see nor hear you, or if the creature takes damage.

As stated above, moving away, damaging the creature, or no longer being perceived by the creature can break the Hypnotic Gaze.

However, it is not clear to me if these criteria always cause the Hypnotic Gaze to end early (whether or not the wizard uses their action to maintain the effect), or if they are only meant to apply to a Hypnotic Gaze that has been extended to more than 1 round.

Does Hypnotic Gaze end if any of these things occur before the end of the wizard's next turn? Or does the effect only end if the wizard uses their action to extend the effect for more than 1 round?

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Hypnotic Gaze always ends under the given conditions

The second paragraph of Hypnotic Gaze contains two sentences, each describing ways to modify the duration of the effect. The first sentence describes how to extend the duration, while the 2nd describes things that can cut the duration short. The connecting word "however" emphasizes this contrast, but it doesn't mean that the 2nd sentence is in any way dependent on the first. Hence, Hypnotic Gaze ends immediately if at any point one of the conditions in the 2nd sentence is met, regardless of whether or not you have used your action to extend its duration.

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