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Suppose, I (PLAYER) choose to Ready.

Next turn, an enemy spellcaster (OPPONENT) casts a spell.

Can PLAYER cast a spell during OPPONENT's turn via 'ready' and force OPPONENT to make a concentration check?

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Yes

The Ready Rules & Concentration Rules provide two ways of doing so:

Method 1 – Readying an Action:

Readying an Action: You can ready a standard action, a move action, a swift action, or a free action. To do so, specify the action you will take and the conditions under which you will take it. Then, anytime before your next action, you may take the readied action in response to that condition. The action occurs just before the action that triggers it. If the triggered action is part of another character’s activities, you interrupt the other character. Assuming he is still capable of doing so, he continues his actions once you complete your readied action.

PLAYER can use the standard action of his turn to ready any spell, that he can cast either as a standard action, move action, or swift action with the trigger "if OPPONENT casts a spell".

If PLAYER succeeds in casting the spell, then it triggers a concentration check for OPPONENT. The DC of the concentration check depends on the spell, i.e. if it deals damage or just interferes:

Spell: If you are affected by a spell while attempting to cast a spell of your own, you must make a concentration check or lose the spell you are casting. If the spell affecting you deals damage, the DC is 10 + the damage taken + the level of the spell you’re casting.

If the spell interferes with you or distracts you in some other way, the DC is the spell’s saving throw DC + the level of the spell you’re casting. For a spell with no saving throw, it’s the DC that the spell’s saving throw would have if a save were allowed (10 + spell level + caster’s ability score).

A few spells – e.g. Distracting Cacophony – have their own explicit rules on concentration checks, that might modify these general rules on concentration checks.

Method 2 – Distracting Spellcasters:

Distracting Spellcasters: You can ready an attack against a spellcaster with the trigger “if she starts casting a spell.” If you damage the spellcaster, she may lose the spell she was trying to cast (as determined by her concentration check result).

PLAYER can ready a spell attack, e.g. a Chill Touch attack or a Steam Reay Fusillade ranged touch attack, with the trigger "if OPPONENT casts a spell".

This only triggers a concentration check when PLAYER successfully damages OPPONENT (see above).

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