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The Wraith has this ability:

Create Specter. The wraith targets a humanoid within 10 feet of it that has been dead for no longer than 1 minute and died violently. The target's spirit rises as a specter in the space of its corpse or in the nearest unoccupied space.

It has been established that creatures that were zombified (for example with Finger of Death or by a Wight) can be brought back to life with Resurrection, after you kill the zombie.

Would this also work with a Specter after you killed it, given you still have the corpse or have access to True Resurrection (and it only died recently)? I am unsure because the "spirit" of the creature is transformed into the Specter. What happens when the specter dies, does the spirit die (i.e. the soul gets destroyed forever), or does it get sent to a final resting place from where it can be recalled by the resurrection?

Note that this question is not the same as this one, where you revivify the corpse while the specter is still "alive". Here the Specter is first killed, and the question is does that destroy the soul and make re-animation impossible, or not. That problem does not exist in the other case.

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No, there is no way to return a Specter to life

The Specter has the following elements in its description (which is also rules text in 5e):

A specter is the angry, unfettered spirit of a humanoid that has been prevented from passing to the afterlife. Specters no longer possess connections to who or what they were, yet are condemned to walk the world forever.

[...]

When a ghost's unfinished business is completed, it can rest at last. No such rest or redemption awaits a specter. It is doomed to the Material Plane, its only end the oblivion that comes with the destruction of its soul.

That last sentence in particular provides a specific exception to the rules on resurrection for Specters. Their only end is the oblivion that comes with the destruction of their soul.

This rules out them being raised from the dead by any means.

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Maybe?

TL;DR:

The rules support that a specter's soul is destroyed on death of the specter, but the rules also support that if that is not a satisfactory outcome, then the GM can change that outcome.

If the GM thinks it's better for the game that the specter's soul is not destroyed, then the GM can and should make that happen.

The Rules

First of all, what do the rules say?

The Specter

The entry for the specter says

A specter is the angry, unfettered spirit of a humanoid that has been prevented from passing to the afterlife. Specters no longer possess connections to who or what they were, yet are condemned to walk the world forever. Some are spawned when dark magic or the touch of a wraith rips a soul from a living body.

Furthermore, it says the specter's "only end the oblivion that comes with the destruction of its soul".

The Wraith

As an action, a wraith can create a specter from a dead humanoid, and that "target's spirit rises as a specter".

Things are not looking good

Any reasonable reading of these rules is that, yep, the souls of specters, regardless of source, are beyond redemption, the only possible end is oblivion.

Or is it?

Specific Beats General

The rules say, "specific beats general".

Could there be a rule that says, "in this specific case, a specter's only possible end is not oblivion".

The specter's description says, "A specter is the angry, unfettered spirit of a humanoid that has been prevented from passing to the afterlife." What if in a specific case, at the time of the destruction of the specter, whatever was preventing its passing into the afterlife was removed? It is not unreasonable to speculate that in the case of an otherwise good, not-hate-filled humanoid, who had been turned into a specter by a wraith, unspecified powers would say, "hey, not so fast, the powers of evil don't get to destroy a soul on the side of good through such a cheap trick", and intervene, allowing the soul to pass into the afterlife.

Is there such a rule? Not that I am aware of, but if there were such a rule, its specificity would beat the generality of the specter's entry.

Rulings Not Rules

"Rulings not rules" is an important element of D&D.

D&D isn't a video game, where every action is determined in a mechanistic way. Instead, as the DMG says, "every DM is the creator of his or her own campaign world", and that the rules "present default assumptions" for how things work.

The rules to not explicitly and unambiguously answer every question. In such an open-ended system, they can't. In the end, even the most by-the-book GM will have to make some determinations.

What is a fun and satisfying outcome?

That is going to depend on the game and table.

Some games, character death is frequent. In others, it's extremely rare.

Depending on the game, a player might not be particularly happy about their character being permanently randomly destroyed by some chance encounter. Depending on the game, the GM might not want that to be the outcome either.

Whether or not to kill off a PC is beyond the scope of this answer, but if the GM doesn't want to permanently kill off the character, then they shouldn't feel obligated, because they are in charge.

The rules actually say this: "The D&D rules help you and the other players have a good time, but the rules aren’t in charge. You’re the DM, and you are in charge of the game."

A Way Out

There are an infinite number of ways out of killing off a PC that has been turned into a specter. I'll present a hypothetical one.

Imagine a session in which a PC's character is killed off as a specter. Reading the rules, the players and even the GM might be like "hmm, that's it, time to roll up a new character."

Fine.

But what if, outside the session, the GM (maybe in consultation with the players) decides that isn't a satisfactory outcome?

Easy.

In session, the GM says, "Wendy, you are troubled by dreams of Phil. Ever since he was killed by the specter you are having dreams in which he somehow needs your aid."

Wendy and the party consult with each other, and perhaps with more nudging from the GM, they consult a priest in a temple of Pelor (or whatever was Phil's deity, if any) and the priest says, "Hmm. I have never heard of a soul that was once a specter being returned to life, but perhaps the soul was not destroyed but is somehow trapped or stuck. It's not as if there's a 'rules-of-the-afterlife' manual, it's a complicated multiverse. Bring me the body and as much relevant material and I will pray for divine guidance on how this good person can be restored to life." After some amount of effort, maybe a lot, the character is restored.

This is not hand-waving, or cheating, or breaking the rules, or going against RAW. This the GM explicitly following the rules of making the game fun. Now, whether the GM should, or how the GM should do it, is out of scope for this answer.

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There is no mechanical suggestion that the creature cannot be resurrected.

The only suggestion that this may be the case is this passage from the section of the Monster Manual about the Specter:

Beyond Redemption. When a ghost's unfinished business is completed, it can rest at last. No such rest or redemption awaits a specter. It is doomed to the Material Plane, its only end the oblivion that comes with the destruction of its soul. Until then, it bears out its lonely life in forlorn places, carrying on forgotten through the ages of the world.

It should be noted that this passage does not appear in the creature's statblock. This is the creature's "lore" or "fluff". The Hexblade warlock's Accursed Specter feature shows that a creature's lore is not indicative of the only way a creature may be used:

The specter remains in your service until the end of your next long rest, at which point it vanishes to the afterlife.

The argument may be made that this is a case of specific rules trumping general rules. However, in the case of the Wraith's Create Specter ability, there are no rules concerning the resurrection of the creature.

There are monsters that can destroy creature's souls, such as the Nabassu from Mordenkainen's Tome of Foes. However, the creature's statistics specifically state how you may go about resurrecting such a creature:

A creature devoured by a nabassu can be restored to life only by a wish spell.

The Wraith's Create Specter ability has no such stipulation. The Monster Manual has this to say about a creature's statistics:

A monster's statistics, sometimes referred to as its stat block, provide the essential information that you need to run the monster.

This suggests that anything that does not exist in the creature's stat block is not "essential" to running the creature in a game.

This is, however, contradicted on occasion by traits such as "Undead Nature", such as the Shadow's:

A shadow doesn't require air, food, drink, or sleep

This is very clearly a mechanical trait, but exists outside the creature's statistics.

It is ultimately up to the Dungeon Master

As far as the designer's intention, it's likely not intended for a monster to have an ability that is likely to be used against players that can kill them permanently with no hope of resurrections in a single action. There are few, if any, features that can do this.

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