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The adventure I am running has the following trap:

Continuous Magic Missile Trap: CR 5; Proximity trigger; automatic reset; 3d4+3 damage automatically, each round, no save; Search DC 29; Disable Device DC 29

The player find the trap and then cast Dispel Magic on the area.

There are no rules I can find for if this should work. The player rolled very high on Dispel Check, as I guesstimate that the Caster Level was about 8.

Are there any real rules and can you do this with Dispel Magic?

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You can at best suppress it

Dispel Magic states

You can use dispel magic to end ongoing spells that have been cast on a creature or object, to temporarily suppress the magical abilities of a magic item, to end ongoing spells (or at least their effects) within an area, or to counter another spellcaster’s spell.

A magic trap is not an ongoing spell, which would be a continuous effect or maybe triggering once for a single effect. It is more like a magic item, a permanent magical creation.

The Player’s Handbook Sidebar on page 73 says:

Magic Traps: Dispel magic helps here. Someone who succeeds on a caster level check against the level of the trap’s creator suppresses the trap for 1d4 rounds. This works only with a targeted dispel magic, not the area version.

You would be able to suppress the trap for 1d4 rounds if your check is successful.

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    \$\begingroup\$ PH, 73 Sidebar: "Magic Traps: Dispel magic helps here. Someone who succeeds on a caster level check against the level of the trap’s creator suppresses the trap for 1d4 rounds. This works only with a targeted dispel magic, not the area version..." \$\endgroup\$
    – Chemus
    Mar 10, 2022 at 10:31

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