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Alice is a 2nd level druid with 10 hit points. She receives the benefit of an Aid spell, bumping her to 15 max and current hit points.

She then has a run-in with a couple of goblins, who hurt her for five damage. She Wild Shapes into a wolf which normally would have 11 hit points.

The target assumes the hit points of its new form, and when it reverts to its normal form, it returns to the number of hit points it had before it transformed. (...) You automatically revert if you fall unconscious, drop to 0 hit points, or die.

The hit point maximum of the Aid transfers to the wolf. There are now two scenarios:

Scenario 1:

Current hit points are replaced by the normal hit points of the new form along with a higher hit point maximum.

Alice-Wolf has 11 hit points. After the goblins beat her down to 0, she reverts to human form, suffers one more hit down to 5, transforms again into a wolf with 11 hits, get clobbered down to 0 again, and reverts to human form. Finally, she defeats the goblins.

She now must rest to regain some hit points, because when Aid will run out, she'll lose 5 hit points.

In this scenario, she has produced no additional hit points from Aid beyond the 5 she originally received.

Scenario 2:

A new form receives both the enhanced maximum hit points and extra current hit points from Aid

Alice-Wolf receives 5 hits points and now has 16 hit points. She fights the goblins and gets reduced to 0 hit points, reverts, and because the effect of adding current hit point applies to each new form, receives another 5 hit points up to 15.

Another hit reduces her to 10 hit point again, she employs her second use of Wild Shape, back to wolf form collects another 5 hit points. She is reduced to 0 points once more, reverts and receives another 5 points back up to 15. Finally, she defeats the goblins.

In this scenario, she has produced 20 additional hit points beyond those Aid originally provided. Alice can repeat this after each short rest, producing a possible 140 hit points from Aid over the course of a day (assuming the last hour is used fighting).

How does Aid interact with Wild Shape? Scenario 1 or Scenario 2? Or yet another Scenario?

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Alice's hit points and hit point maximum change, but that's it

Alice is targeted with aid and goes from 10 hp to 15 hp from the spell. After being hit, she now has 10 hp again.

She then Wild Shapes into a wolf... and has 11 hp, just like a normal wolf. Contrary to what the other answer wrote.

Why? Because Alice is still the same target. Wild Shape doesn't change Alice into a new target; Alice is still Alice, just in a different form. Alice's hit point maximum was raised by 5 along with her hp. She then "assume[s] the shape of a beast".

The aid spell is still in effect on her. Her maximum did not decrease. And as the description goes: "...Your game statistics are replaced by the statistics of the beast...".

Sage Advice concurs

The Sage Advice Compendium directly addresses the question of spell effects remaining after polymorph:

Can a creature under the effects of polymorph have other spell effects on them, or are those game statistics also replaced by the those of the beast form? Polymorph replaces only the target’s character sheet or stat block with the stat block of the chosen form. Other effects, such as other spells, still exist.

Hit points are part of the stat block; therefore replaced

Alice's hit point maximum statistic is 15; not 10 + 5.

It is replaced with the wolf's hit point maximum statistic, which is 11 (or 2d8+2).

Aid still exists, as do other spells. But aid effects the stat block which is replaced. Invisibility, pass without trace, guidance can all continue to work also; but they are not controlled by the stat block.

Let's look at it from another perspective

We will go on the premise that the aid spell is still active and follows the form.

Alice was hit again and has only 5 hp left. To escape, Alice Wild Shape's into a wolf and the aid benefits follow; that means Alice would lose her benefits. So Alice is now at max hp 10 again, but she would also lose the 5 hit points that were granted by aid. If that's the case, she now has 0 hp out of max 10, knocking her unconscious.

She has become trapped in true form until she receives some form of healing.

In the end...

Assuming Alice survives the goblin attack, she can still be healed up to 15 until the aid spell ends. But her wolf form does not also gain the benefit of +5 each time she changes shape.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I do not see any way to make the argument that you can increase the HP/Max HP every round. If you're going to say you can make that argument and use that to support your answer, then please actually make it. \$\endgroup\$
    – NotArch
    Commented Mar 18, 2022 at 14:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ @NautArch I completely removed the whole argument of once vs continual. In the end, I don't think my answer required it \$\endgroup\$
    – MivaScott
    Commented Mar 18, 2022 at 17:36
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    \$\begingroup\$ Even though aid is currently active with very clear spell effects, you disagree that the currently active form that doesn't have those effects shouldn't get those effects? \$\endgroup\$
    – NotArch
    Commented Mar 18, 2022 at 17:39
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    \$\begingroup\$ Does the ongoing magical effect from aid differ from a magic item that adds +1 strength? Does the beast form benefit from the magical item that affects the STR of the stat block? \$\endgroup\$
    – GcL
    Commented Mar 19, 2022 at 3:42
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To formulate a concrete answer, the spell applies the following;

For 8 hours, 'you' (if declared as target) have 5 extra health, both in terms of maximum health and current health. When you wildshape, all your physical statistics and attributes your original shape had, will be remembered and "frozen", while your statistics adopt the physical attributes and statistics that are relevant to the beast you wildshape into. Psychological attributes (WIS, INT, CHA, proficiencies, languages, etc), as well as any current lingering spells or boosts (not coming from worn equipment, UNLESS the item says so), will remain in effect.

This means that;

  • Yes, your beastshape will have 5 additional hitpoints to both start your wildshape in, so long the effect lasts.
  • No, the game will keep remembering; "I had X out of 15 hitpoints", because the effect never disappears from you until it is dispelled or its duration runs out. If the aid spell was removed from you during your wildshape, your shape loses the +5 hitpoints it had, and so will the hp of your original shape. If that through some way lets your original shape end up below 0 hitpoints, you will be downed (unconcious and unstable) as soon as you transform back.
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Aid's text is ambiguous

The relevant text for the Aid spell states the following :

Each target's hit point maximum and current hit points increase by 5 for the duration.

There are a few different ways to read this sentence, which drastically change how it works :

  • Reading 1 : When the spell is cast, it instantly rewrites the hit points and max hit points values of the targets. It then does nothing for the rest of the duration, and rewrites those values once more upon ending.

  • Reading 2 : When the spell is cast, it applies an ongoing effect on each target that gives them a bonus to their max hit points on top of their default value, and also heals them for that same value. When the spell ends, this same amount is deducted from their hit points, and the effect ends.

In other words, either the ongoing effect of Aid does nothing, or it constantly applies the max hit points increase.

The Sage Advice Compendium makes it clear that when transforming, the druid will still be affected by the ongoing effect of the spell :

Can a creature under the effects of polymorph have other spell effects on them, or are those game statistics also replaced by the those of the beast form? Polymorph replaces only the target’s character sheet or stat block with the stat block of the chosen form. Other effects, such as other spells, still exist.

With that in mind, each reading now has a very different conclusion on the effects of Aid :

  • With reading 1, the new form is under the ongoing effect of Aid, but since this ongoing effect does nothing, the new form's hit points and max hit points are unchanged.

  • With reading 2, the new form is under the ongoing effect of Aid, which means its hit points and max hit points will be increased.

Reading 1 is straightforward...

With reading 1, the interaction is very easy to resolve : you get +5/+5 when the spell takes effect, and you get -5/-5 when it is removed.

If we take the practical example in the question :

  • Alice the Druid has 10/10 hit points and is targeted by Aid. She is now at 15/15 hit points.

  • Alice the Druid takes 5 damage from combat. She is now at 10/15 hit points.

  • Alice transforms into a wolf, with a base value of 11 hit points. She now has 11/11 hit points.

  • Alice the Wolf turns back into a Druid. She returns at 10/15 hit points.

... but it can be exploited

Apart from the oddness of having a spell "do nothing for 8 hours", there is a major issue with this reading : stacking effects.

In 5th edition, effects with the same name do not stack. Instead, the most potent, then most recent effect applies. That means that if we have two ongoing magical effects on a target, only the most potent one applies, and in the case of equal potency, only the one with the longest duration applies.

If the ongoing effect of the Aid spell is not the max hit point increase, then this increase (and the gained hit points) can be stacked multiple times on a single target.

There could also be an argument made for the issue of ending the effect while transformed. Would is apply the -5/-5 to the current form? Or would it apply to the original form when you turn back? The former would allow permanent, stackable max hit point increases, which would absolutely break the game.

What about reading 2?

If we go with reading 2, then the gained hit points are part of the effect, and they're granted alongside the max hit point increase.

However, when you transform back to druid form, you regain a stat block already affected by the hit points and max hit points modification, which means it shouldn't apply twice.

Let's apply this to the practical example :

  • Alice the Druid has 10/10 hit points and is targeted by Aid. She is now at 15/15 hit points. (or 10/10 + 5/5)

  • Alice the Druid takes 5 damage from combat. She is now at 10/15 hit points. (or 5/10 + 5/5)

  • Alice transforms into a wolf, with a base value of 11 hit points. Because she benefits from Aid, she transforms into a wolf with 16/16 hit points. (or 11/11 + 5/5)

  • Alice the Wolf turns back into a Druid. Because she is still under the effect of Aid, she returns into her form at 10/15 (or 5/10 + 5/5).

You do not restore the 5 hit points when returning to druid form, because the hit point value which was "frozen" when transforming was already altered by Aid.

To note is that following this logic, if your Aid spell ended while you're in wolf form, you would return at 5/10 hit points, because the Aid spell wouldn't be increasing your hit points and max hit points anymore.

Ask your DM

While I may personally prefer the second reading, in the end, neither of those readings is objectively more correct than the other. The fault lies in the ambiguity of english language, in the end.

You'll have to discuss with your DM (or with your players, if you're the DM) to decide which reading is law in your game (or decide on an in-between, if you feel like neither option is good enough).

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