Assume you used the first two ASIs to maximize the intelligence for a Wizard (Divination). Then, on level 12 you have the choice for another feat. The primary goal is to maximize the survivability (i.e. not dying) for the wizard. What feat will best achieve that?
The campaign is a typical D&D campaign in a Forgotten Realms setting, with a mix of dungeon exploration, overland and city adventures, mostly dungeon delving. Party of four, with a fighter, rogue and cleric. The wizard's role is to stand in the back if possible for battlefield control and remote damage, not to engage in melee, but they obviously cannot always avoid that. Sometimes intelligent opponents will decide that they should take out the squishy mage at the back and focus fire on him. The wizard is not the one scouting ahead or checking for traps, that is either their familiar or the rogue, who has high perception due to expertise and high Wisdom. The cleric can cast Aid to bolster the entire team with 15+ increased hit point maximum.
Sometimes foes lie in ambush and assault the group from the side with surprise. I'd like the wizard to avoid dying (going down is fine, as long as they do not die in the end). Situations that took the wizard down, or nearly so, during the first 12 levels include being fireballed, being fireballed multiple times in one round, being attacked with surprise by a Clay Golem, Ropers, a Behir, multiple Shambling Mounds (all different times), and being attacked by a Hellfire Engine.
Playstyle: The wizard will not flee combat and abandon their comrades, unless that is the only way to avoid ensured TPK. We tend to do careful exploration, with a good amount of scouting and divination spells before going somewhere, but even doing that we've not been able to know everything -- many dangers are hidden or camouflaged. The vibe is pretty "oldschool", i.e. a DM that sees his role as challenging us with deadly encounters.
Assume the wizard has no special magic items. Their spell list includes all the staples of: mage armor, shield, find familiar, misty step, dimension door, and for remote damage and battlefield control fire bolt, web, fireball, polymorph, wall of force. They do have access to arcane eye and scrying to help scouting. They have contingency, typically set to dispel mind control effects. Pretty much any spell under 5th level is available. They have 8 Str, 13 Con, 14 Dex, 12 Wis, 14 Cha.
Feats I think could be good candidates could be Alert (to avoid deadly surprise rounds, side benefit of higher initiative in combat), Resilient (to get extra hp, side benefit of better ability to keep concentration), and Lucky. Maybe Tough. Among those, which is the best, and what are the reasons for it?
I realize that all feats are good for something, but if you had to pick one to maximize the chances of the wizard surviving, which one would it be, and why that one? While this will differ from situation to situation, when one has to make this choice, one does not have perfect information about the spells, monsters, traps etc. one will be facing. Did you play higher-level campaigns? Maybe what is deadly up there is different to what was deadly in tier 1-2. What was really effective in your experience?
For example, Tough is giving the wizard more hp, but Resilient also helps them to survive Con saves better (and I think due to the collateral Concentration benefit is generally picked far more often than Tough). Are Con Saves (e.g. vs poison creatures) relevant enough for that to matter? Surprise rounds seems to be what often creates deadly situations for the party, and especially for wizards as it means they will be ill positioned. Would you pick Alert over Tough or Resilient, or is it better to just have the extra hp? Lucky can help you make saving throws, on any ability and help with initiative or perception checks against surprise, would you expect that to be more effective than extra hp?
To keep this focused, I'm asking only about Alert, Tough, Resilient, Lucky, and Inspiring Leader. Other feats ar OK to mention, but you should be able to explain why they achieve the objective better than any of them.