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Wish has a duration of “instantaneous”, which means it cannot be dispelled by Dispel Magic. Let’s say that a spellcaster uses Wish to duplicate a spell with a duration, like Mirage Arcane for example (which lasts 10 days). If someone tried to dispel that Mirage Arcane duplicate, would they succeed? Or would it fail because the spell in place is actually a Wish that merely acts like Mirage Arcane?

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No, the duration is part of the duplicated effect.

Wish states:

The basic use of this spell is to duplicate any other spell of 8th level or lower. You don't need to meet any requirements in that spell, including costly components. The spell simply takes effect.

When duplicating a spell effect, we must ask the question “how long does the duplicated spell last?” The only way to answer that question is to look at the duration of the duplicated spell. Sure, wish is instantaneous, but a duplicated spell effect with a duration still has a duration. The idea of the “basic use” of wish is that the only effect it has is to replicate the spell effect. Once cast we should expect the spell to behave as usual, with the only exceptions being those described in the description of wish. If wish were intended to change how spells cast interacted with dispel magic, it would mention that.

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    \$\begingroup\$ slight addition: it replicates the spell effect, but with the added effect of an instantaneous casting time. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jul 9, 2022 at 17:40

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