It is not an official rule.
However, if you have a disagreement with it's common house rule variant, that "something bad" must happen, you could let the dice decide for you.
I've commonly made a list of possible effects on a natural 1 roll, I (as DM) roll a d10.
1-5 - just miss, no additional adverse effects.
6 & 7 - miss target and player rolls attack & damage on self.
8 & 9 - miss target and player rolls attack & damage on ally (chosen at random).
10 - most random & improbable event happens, left to DM's discretion.
I use #10 as additional story line spice. For example, last time, the player missed, and caused a butterfly effect by accidentally hitting one of the braces on a dam. The battle raged on, but in the weakened state, the brace broke, releasing the dam, finishing the battle, removing the enemies, and continuing toward the town that had contracted them to rid the evil characters in the first place.
One time, the natural 1, plus my 10, caused an arrow to ricochet off a rock, into the air, hitting a harpy passing by. Thus arousing more angry harpies.
Basically it can be blan and just a miss, or an opportunity to expand on the intentionally vague rule.