It can't all happen on one turn
As your Action, the character takes the Attack action, so, as a high enough level Ranger, they can get two attacks. As a Gloom Stalker, so long as it's the first turn in combat, you can also attack one extra time as a Dread Ambusher. And that's your Action.
As your Bonus Action, assuming you are attacking with monk weapons or unarmed, you can attack a 4th time. Alternately, with Fury of Blows you could make a 4th and 5th unarmed attack.
But that's it.
You cannot "re-enter stealth" in that same turn as you've used up all your actions/bonus actions. So if you killed/rendered unconscious the ONE enemy. You can out of combat try to hide again and move on to the next enemy.
But anyone can do that
There is nothing stopping a fighter, cleric, or wizard from offing a single enemy in one turn so they can hide and move on to the next enemy. So long as they can all be approached singly.
From your description, it sounds like you expect a room full of enemies that you can hit, take out, and hide from one one-at-time, without any of the other people in the room figuring it out. Which as I pointed out, cannot all happen in one turn.
If you managed to take them out with just your attacks/dread ambusher, you can as a rogue use your bonus action to try to hide again. But unless you're amazingly stealthy, someone is going to hear you.
How long is combat is up to the DM
I noticed you added a little more detail.
If the DM set up the encounter where there is only one enemy at a time, then (a) yes, as pointed out, each combat would allow a "first turn" special bonus attack, and (b) your DM really needs to work on how to set up encounters.
You are at minimum 7th level (5 Ranger, and 1 each Monk and Rogue). Many characters are getting multiple attacks. Having multiple isolated creatures in a row (around corners, through a door, etc) is just bad planning.
But even then, just because a creature is "around the corner" doesn't automatically mean it's a new combat. I've have many sessions where the party would take out what they thought was a single creature, but the noise caused more to rush in. Sometimes with a round in between for us to "prepare"; same combat, but just a freebie round.
So the scenario you described could work, but I wouldn't count on making it a standard operating procedure.