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I was thinking about an adventure where my player characters have to travel to Selûne and come back with a creature found on the moon. However, the creature would be too large for travel by ship (at least for any ship the characters could get their hands on).

So I was thinking that one way to come back would be to teleport from Selûne back to Toril. The 5e Teleport spell has no distance limitation; however, the destination must be on the same plane.

Is a moon considered to be on the same plane of existence as the planet it orbits?

I would think that the answer is yes, but I'm wondering whether there is anything in D&D's lore to confirm that assumption.

As an extension: Would all worlds (planets, moons, asteroids, etc.) be considered to be part of the same Material Plane (and thus one could use Teleport to get to any planet in the universe)?

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To the best of my knowledge, 5e doesn’t address this directly, though Groody the Hobgoblin’s fine answer does a decent job reading between the lines of what we do know.

Prior editions did address this directly—most notably in the 2e Spelljammer line, where spaceships would fly through the wild spaces of the Material Plane, from one campaign setting to the next. Where any of this stands in 5e is now very uncertain, since the recent Spelljammer: Adventures in Space ret-cons spelljammers entirely, moving them (inexplicably) to the Astral Plane. We just don’t know if the rest of the structure of the Material—which was mostly described for the sake of spelljammers traveling there—still applies.

But this is what we had, and maybe lost.

Crystal Spheres of the Material Plane

The various campaign settings were all found within the same Material Plane. (Mostly all; a few alternate Material Planes were known.) They were separated, however, in separate Crystal Spheres. The Crystal Spheres were spherical (natch), and made from some indestructible crystalline (doi) material. They were also enormous—think the size of our Solar System. They would include a star (or two, in a binary system), planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and so on. Within the Crystal Sphere, things worked more-or-less like they do in real life: the atmosphere thins as you get away from a planet, and in the vacuum between there is nothing.

The various Crystal Spheres floated in the phlogiston, an intensely flammable, intensely toxic, intensely magical substance. There were portals through the Crystal Spheres out into the space beyond, but the phlogiston could not get through them.

Relevant to this question, phlogiston absolutely blocked interplanar communication and travel—which under 2e rules included teleportation. Gods couldn’t even hear the prayers of their worshippers while those worshippers were within the phlogiston. You could plane shift away from the Material Plane inside one Crystal Sphere, and then plane shift back to the Material Plane in another Crystal Sphere, but you couldn’t teleport directly across the phlogiston from one Crystal Sphere to another. For that, you needed to travel physically through the phlogiston itself—in a spelljammer. Spelljammers were used to travel through the void within a Crystal Sphere, through a portal, and out into the phlogiston, flying to another Crystal Sphere and entering through one of its portals. This was, in a nutshell, the Spelljammer setting.

Realmspace

The name of the Crystal Sphere that contained the Forgotten Realms was known as Realmspace—which had its own dedicated sourcebook, cunningly titled Realmspace (1991). There are a number of details there, from the unique spells carved into the inner surface of the Crystal Sphere (found on no other Crystal Sphere), to the stable phlogiston currents connecting Realmspace with Greyspace (Greyhawk) and Krynnspace (Dragonlance) in a triangular neighborhood of significant import, to its proximity to the Arcane Inner Flow, a major spelljammer shipping lane.

But most relevantly to this question, we got information on precisely what the Realmspace Crystal Sphere contained:

  • The Sun
  • 8 planets
    • The third of which is Toril, on which we find Faerûn and the rest of the Forgotten Realms
      • Orbited by its single, large natural satellite, Selûne
        • Which is tidally-locked with Toril, so one side always faces Toril; the far side is sometimes known as the “dark side” even though it is not always dark (just always facing away from Toril).
  • Various comets, asteroids, and elder evils

Sounds familiar, doesn’t it?

They even include a map:

Map of Realmspace from Realmspace (1991)

Anyway, Realmspace, at least, is confident that the moon is a moon, merely named for the goddess, and there are even people living on it—though they prefer to call themselves Leirans, and the moon Leira, favoring that goddess over Selûne. The Leirans are primarily found on the “dark side” of Selûne/Leira, and thus their civilization is hidden from the inhabitants of Toril.

So in conclusion, Selûne (or Leira) was definitely within the same plane as Toril, even within the same Crystal Sphere, and teleportation between the two was possible, though before 5e, a teleport of 183,000 mi was rather difficult to achieve.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Is "K'thoutek" a planet? It's got a dashed orbit and looks like a massive comet, but I can't make 9 any other way. \$\endgroup\$
    – ESCE
    Sep 1, 2022 at 2:59
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    \$\begingroup\$ @ESCE It is a comet—and I just miscounted. \$\endgroup\$
    – KRyan
    Sep 1, 2022 at 3:13
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    \$\begingroup\$ @KRyan Pluto is still a planet in my heart, I was hoping the DnD lore agreed 😢 \$\endgroup\$
    – ESCE
    Sep 1, 2022 at 15:55
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    \$\begingroup\$ @ESCE planet means wanderer. Pluto is still a 'star' that moves. It just hangs out with a different group of them in the Kuiper belt. \$\endgroup\$ Sep 2, 2022 at 7:41
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    \$\begingroup\$ @AlexisWilke I’m not 100% certain what Adventures in Space ret-conned (I don’t actually have—or want—the book), but at least in prior editions, wildspace was the vacuum within a Crystal Sphere, so “worlds” may be quite correct: they’re talking about teleporting across physical distances through a vacuum, not crossing planar boundaries. If the Crystal Spheres remain, then one would presume that they are the boundary between the Material and the Astral, and wildspace is still Material. But again, I can’t check the book, just compare what I’ve read about it against past material that I do have. \$\endgroup\$
    – KRyan
    Sep 17, 2022 at 16:10
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They all appear to be on the same material plane

There may be more lore from earlier editions. For 5e, Selûne, the moon of Toril, is not a simple planetary body. The Sword Coast Adventurer's Guide states:

Selune is thought to be among the most ancient of Faerun's deities. Most humans in Faerun consider the moon in the sky to literally be the goddess gazing down on the world, and the trailing motes of light behind it her tears.

making the moon a goddess. However, this might be a goddess that in the form of a moon that you could travel to. For example, in Tomb of Annihilation there is a stone said to be made of a chunk of the moon (page 128) and a model of the celestial bodies including the moon on page 178:

The armillary sphere depicts Toril, its moon, the sun, and other planetary bodies in Realmspace. Any character who has viewed large-scale maps of Faerûn will recognize certain geographical features on the globe.

Being able to see the moon from Toril also would indicate that it is on the same plane. Normally, you could not see things that are on different planes or in different dimensions, as they are infinitely or unmeasurably far from each other, unless you happen to look through an appropriate portal (with some exception for the Border Ethereal)1.

Toril itself is a planet, one of a cluster of planets circling the sun. They are described in a Star Map in Dungeon of the Mad Mage, p. 252:

The chart on the ceiling has the sun at its center, with elongated rings showing the paths of the eight planets that orbit it: rocky Anadia; Coliar the gas giant; Toril and the small asteroid cluster orbiting it called the Tears of Selûne; the water worlds Karpri and Chandos; the noxious ringed planet Glyth; the asteroid cluster of Garden, which is held together by an enormous plant; and the wheel-shaped H'catha. Beyond the planets are the constellations of Realmspace, all visible in the night skies of Toril at various times of the year.

These all being listed as circling the same sun, and visible from Toril in the sky, make it pretty clear that you can expect them to be part of the same plane or dimension. This is also supported by the DMG, p. 13, which states

The worlds of D&D exist within the Material Plane, making it the starting point for most campaigns and adventures.

All this would indicate that, yes, all these celestial bodies are part of the prime material plane and could be teleported to.


1 The Astral Adventurer's Guide introduces the notion the Astral Plane and the Prime Material Plane overlap in Wildspace. It confirms that the planets and moons of any Wildspace system are considered to be on the same material plane:

Every D&D world—whether round, at, or some other shape—exists in an airless void known as Wildspace. A world might be solitary, or it might have neighbors: one or more suns, worlds, moons, asteroids, comets, or other bodies. This neighborhood of celestial and planetary bodies is called a Wildspace system.

In Wildspace, the Material Plane and the Astral Plane overlap. Creatures and objects in Wildspace age normally and are effectively on both of those planes at once.

For the Forgotten Realms, the D&D Beyond promotional supplement "Spelljammer Academy" provides additional information on the planets of Realmspace (the Wildspace system described in the quotes above), includes a map similar to that in KRyan's answer, and describes the nature of Toril's moon:

Toril’s single large moon, Selune, has a breathable atmosphere and is occupied by isolated groups of inhabitants.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I also like the fact that in this sentence: "[...] within the Material Plane, [...]", Material Plane is singular, which means there is only one. \$\endgroup\$ Sep 1, 2022 at 4:18
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    \$\begingroup\$ @AlexisWilke Nah. There are infinite parallel material planes. The Prime Material is just called "the" Material Plane the same way we say "the world" to mean the Earth even though we know there are lots of other worlds out in the cosmos or you might say you're "in the car" even though there are, in fact, many cars out in the world. \$\endgroup\$
    – samuei
    Sep 1, 2022 at 20:37
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There are no elements that suggest that Toril's moon is on another plane.

From the link already provided in the answer one can read:

Selûne was about 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers) across and was located 183,000 miles (295,000 kilometers) away from Toril, although some sages from the late 14th century DR claimed the distance to be some 20,000 miles (32,000 kilometers) instead.

These information come mainly from the Forgotten Realms campaign setting for the 3rd edition: these details, i.e., the provided distances, strongly suggest that the moon is in the same plane of existence of the planet. There is no material in the 5th edition that goes against this interpretation.

This answer digs deep in several sources and mainly the most recent Astral Adventurer's Guide confirms this interpretation.

Further evidence for other settings: Dragonlance

The three moons Solinari, Nuitari and Lunitari orbit around the planet of Krynn, as described in the introduction of the recent adventure Shadow of the Dragon Queen. The campaign setting for the 3rd edition provides the description of the cosmology, and there are no hints that may lead to think that the moons are not in another plane. Moreover, their phases heavily influence the magic on Krynn, hence if they were on another plane of existence there should be at least some mechanical (in game terms) explanation how this is possible.

In Spelljammers: AD&D Adventure in Space one can find

Krynn has three moons: Nuitari, Lunitari and Solinari. All are thought to be uninhabited, and some may have been reached by early Krynnish space explorers (mainly gnomes) using a variety of means.

The last sentence leave rooms for interpretation in one sense or another, since a "variety of means" may include magical travel among planes.

Nonetheless, there is a novel by P. Thomson and T. Carter, Darkness and Light, where two main characters of the War of the Lance series travel to the moon Lunitari using a gnome (space)ship: no magical means were used, just electricity and technology. This actually confirm that Krynn's moons are on the same Material Plane of the planet.

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