I have tried, with varied success, to do this kind of thing in every game I've run for the past twenty-plus years. It's not easy, and it tends to require a big sprawling game and a consistent vision on the part of the GM. And unfortunately I can't say what the player experience of this is because for miscellaneous reasons I haven't gotten a lot of feedback on it.
Complex, Non-Absolute Issues
The first thing I find helpful here, is to look at different sides or angles of large, complex, non-absolute issues. Your kobold example is maybe not the best example of that because the reality in-game is settled before the players ever arrive on screen: That dragon is either dead or permanently gone (the kid is right) or is waiting for or open to the kobolds reforging themselves in the blood of their enemies (the chief is right.)
That by itself is not a moral or ideological example, it's just a thing that's objectively true or false.
You generally want something complicated that doesn't have an objectively true or false answer. A huge, cosmic example might be fate vs free will (maybe phrased as law vs chaos?) A smaller, more political, but still large example might be subjugation of (some or all) of the wilderness and advanced trade links vs a more defensive, isolationist posture that leaves the wilderness free.
These are big questions that reasonable people can disagree on. These are big questions that a single person can sometimes disagree with themselves about. And of course, they are big questions that can attract violent people to either side.
Variations, Plural, On A Theme
The other big thing is that, if you restrict yourself to a small setting playing out just one local iteration of these questions, you probably can't do much about fairness. Even in grand open questions, if your village is starving, you are probably going to come down on the side of clearing some land. If the Tree King rouses himself to definitively punish that behavior, you will probably shift to some other attitude.
However, if you play out three or four thematically linked scenarios (not even one right after the other-- that can feel heavy handed) some slanted one way, some slanted the other, some just genuinely difficult situations, you can start to get to something approximating "fair" over the course of the whole campaign. You can also get to explore an issue, instead of just instantly resolving it.
To take your kobold example, if your take the broader theme to be "Embrace the new vs Loyalty to tradition" then that's a great theme. The specific situation with the kobolds still seems a little lop-sided and obvious to me personally but if this is something that just speaks to you, I have faith that you'll figure out a way to incorporate it. (What would I do? Have the tribe split between an old, static overlord and a new and dynamic one, perhaps. Now it's not a question of objectively right or wrong, it's a question of trade-offs.)