Deific Weapon Doesn't Affect Greatswords
Deific Weapon has 2 functions:
- Granting access to an Uncommon weapon
- Increasing the damage die by one step for:
- Simple Weapons
- Unarmed Attacks that deal 1d4 damage
A Greatsword is a Common Martial weapon, and thus doesn't benefit at all, with the exception of a custom campaign setting in which your GM has declared Greatswords Uncommon (in which case you're probably working with custom dieties anyway).
The damage die remains a d12.
There are currently no printed d12 simple weapons
The question under your question (what happens when increasing beyond a d12 I presume) is that this is currently impossible through Deific Weapon, and I'm not aware of any way to do it through other feats or features. However, even if it were...
You Can't Increase Beyond d12
If somehow you found a way to increase the damage die of a d12 weapon, you simply wouldn't. From the damage rules:
When an effect calls on you to increase the size of your weapon damage dice, instead of using its normal weapon damage dice, use the next larger die, as listed below (so if you were using a d4, you’d use a d6, and so on). If you are already using a d12, the size is already at its maximum. You can’t increase your weapon damage die size more than once.