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To ready spells for a trigger to occur, concentrations is required.

But if you have already casts spells like Maximilian’s Earthen Grasp or Call Lightning, can you ready the "action" part of such spells without requiring concentration?

I would say yes, as the action part of the spell is not casting a spell, it is just a new action option you have available when you are concentrating on the spell.

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You can ready an action granted by a spell, even if the spell requires concentration for the duration.

As noted in the question, it requires concentration to use the Ready action for casting a spell after a trigger occurs. On the other hand, per the rules, Ready-ing an Action other than casting does not require concentration.

Consider Maximilian’s Earthen Grasp: this requires concentration for the duration, and the spell's text says:

As an action, you can cause the hand to crush the restrained target, who must make a Strength saving throw. It takes 2d6 bludgeoning damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.

The action described above is not the Cast a Spell Action; the concentration required to use it is encompassed in the duration of the spell. Hence, the caster can Ready the action, namely "crash the restrained target", granted by the spell itself.

Obviously, if you lose concentration on Maximilian’s Earthen Grasp before the trigger occurs, the spell dissipates and you also lose the readied action.

Note that some actions granted by spells can be taken only on your turn.

Call Lightning specifies that the action can be taken in a particular phase of the round (emphasis mine):

On each of your turns until the spell ends, you can use your action to call down lightning in this way again, targeting the same point or a different one.

Hence, since a readied action usually does not take place on one's turn, one cannot ready the action granted by Call Lightning. On the other hand, Maximilian’s Earthen Grasp has no such clause, so it could be used on the turns of others.

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    \$\begingroup\$ That’s a good catch on the “on each of your turns” stipulation that many spells have, I would have missed that. \$\endgroup\$ Feb 23, 2023 at 15:45
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    \$\begingroup\$ @ThomasMarkov To be honest, I was writing the answer with the sole example of MEG, and putting a footnote saying that "it works also for similar spells as CL", but then I decided to check also the other one and saw that particular clause. \$\endgroup\$
    – Eddymage
    Feb 23, 2023 at 15:47
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Here are the full rules about readying an action (from PHB, page 193):

Sometimes you want to get the jump on a foe or wait for a particular circumstance before you act. To do so, you can take the Ready action on your turn, which lets you act using your reaction before the start of your next turn.

First, you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move up to your speed in response to it. Examples include "If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, I'll pull the lever that opens it," and "If the goblin steps next to me, I move away."

When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round.

When you ready a spell, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must have a casting time of 1 action, and holding onto the spell's magic requires concentration (explained in chapter 10). If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking effect. For example, if you are concentrating on the web spell and ready magic missile, your web spell ends, and if you take damage before you release magic missile with your reaction, your concentration might be broken.

You have until the start of your next turn to use a readied action.

There is also another subtlety that doesn't appear clearly: some actions require that you use them "on your turn". For example the Extra Attack feature of a Fighter:

Beginning at 5th level, you can attack twice, instead of once, whenever you take the Attack action on your turn.

Most uses of Ready action makes attack happen outside of your turn, so this Fighter would only get one attack.

Maximilian's Earthen Grasp has no such limitation:

As an action, you can cause the hand to crush the restrained target, which must make a Strength saving throw. The target takes 2d6 bludgeoning damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.

As an action, you can cause the hand to reach for a different creature or to move to a different unoccupied space within range. The hand releases a restrained target if you do either.

None of those require that this happens on your turn, and using this action isn't a new cast of the spell, so you are good.

The same isn't true for Call Lightning:

On each of your turns until the spell ends, you can use your action to call down lightning in this way again, targeting the same point or a different one.

Here it clearly states that this action has to happen on your turn, and thus you can't Ready it.

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Yes, you can do this

Suppose you are maintaining concentration on a spell that has a distinct effect triggered by spending an action, such as the one in Earthen Grasp. Can you ready to use that action on a certain trigger? Well, you can unless doing so would cause you to lose concentration on the spell itself. So, does anything about readying an action cause you to use or lose concentration?

Does readying an action require a concentration?
No, nothing in the rules on readying an action says that you need to concentrate on your readied action.

We know that readying a spell requires concentration, but in this case you are concentrating on the spell itself, not on the readied action. If you had to concentrate on the readied action in addition to the spell, you would not be able to hold on to the spell in the first place.

Does using a reaction require concentration?
No, nothing in the rules on using a reaction says that you need to use Concentration to take a reaction. Further, the rules on Concentration do not list taking a reaction as among the things that use or break concentration. Incidentally, nothing in the War Caster feat (PHB p. 170) says that using a reaction to take an opportunity attack makes us lose concentration on a spell.

Readying an action and then using a reaction do not by themselves require concentration. Thus there is nothing that prohibits readying an action to take the 'action' part of a Concentration spell while you have it running. As other answers have noted, certain spells do restrict the actions to being performed on your turn, but that is a restriction imposed by the spells in question, and not the rules on Spellcasting, Concentration, Readying, or Reactions.

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