5e uses ability checks, not skill checks
As enkryptor writes, the DM should not be asking for skill checks. Rather, they should be asking for an Ability check, potentially modified by a skill. In your case, you would not be asking for an Arcana check to read the glyphs, but rather 'An Intelligence check modified by your proficiency in Arcana', often abbreviated as Int (Arcana). If you know Arcana is the relevant skill, fine, but the system is asking you to also determine what is the relevant ability. Maybe it is Intelligence, since Intelligence is the default ability for the Arcana skill. But Intelligence measures logic and recall - and you have said that the glyphs are written in a language the characters have never seen. So what good is recall? Maybe what you really want is Wis (Arcana) for intuiting out the pronunciation, or even Cha (Arcana) for correct diction.
Further Reading: How does the Variant: Skills with Different Abilities rule affect the game? Also note that Thomas Markov's answer to that question is useful to your question here about whether the players need to guess what checks are needed.
Player guessing vs. DM announcing
As a DM, you have already decided that the Arcana skill is relevant to reading these glyphs, because they are a set-piece; an important plot element that you have placed in advance. Sometimes players will request an action you had not expected; then, you would decide on the appropriate check in the moment. In neither case would the players be required to guess the check required. After they tell you their intention ('I would like to read the glyphs'), you tell them what check is required.
In your case the puzzle is that the glyphs need to be read aloud, and that is where the players will be making their guesswork. They might try pressing them, tracing them, translating them with a comprehend languages spell, etc. But once they have stated their intention to read the glyphs aloud, you as DM simply announce the check they will need to make in order to successfully do that, in this case an Int (Arcana) check.
Further reading: Should I request an ability check only when the player asks for it?
Players are to be rewarded for using their skills
Sometimes players might come at a problem from a different direction than you intended. That is fine. Presented with 'You'll need an Int (Arcana) check to read these glyphs', a player whose character has a high skill proficiency in History might ask to use that instead, arguing that in their historical research they might have seen them before. A player with a tool proficiency in Mason's Tools might suggest that carefully examining the carvings would at least determine whether they were carved left-to-right or right-to-left and that is a clue as to the direction they are to be read. The DMG says that these creative uses of a character's skills are to be rewarded (not discouraged). In Using Ability Scores, Proficiency (239):
Often, players ask whether they can apply a skill proficiency to an ability check. If a player can provide a good justification for why a character's training and
aptitude in a skill should apply to the check, go ahead and allow it, rewarding the player's creative thinking.
With this advice in mind, possible answers to the players' petitions here might be:
These particular glyphs aren't found in mundane histories - I'll allow the Int (History) check, but it will be a higher DC than the Arcana
No, it's still an Int (Arcana) check, but your tool proficiency in Mason's Tools will give you advantage on that check.
There is a fuzzy line here between players knowing their own character and metagaming. If a player reasons that they have a high Perception score and then tries to make everything in the game a Perception check, that is metagaming - 'I would like to Perceive what the glyphs are saying...'. As Thomas Markov explains here, you should be discouraging that approach, and see also Can players declare that they are making a specific ability check? (short answer: no).
However, if a player approaches this as 'here are the skills I have that might apply to this situation, perhaps the DM hasn't considered my background in masonry...' then that adds to character depth and can be rewarded.
The players guess at how to solve the puzzle. Once they have the correct intention, the DM calls for the check - the players do not have to guess which check is required. The players are free to suggest alternate checks to accomplish the same result.