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One of the basic effects of Arcane Cascade is

While you're in the stance, your melee Strikes deal 1 extra damage.[...]

The damage type is determined by the spell used before entering the Stance.

If your most recent spell before entering the stance was one that can deal damage, the damage from the stance is the same type that spell could deal (or one type of your choice if the spell could deal multiple types of damage). If the spell couldn't deal damage, this stance's bonus damage depends on the spell's school.

Obviously, if either your attack or Stance deals damage that a Creature is Weak or Resistant to, that increase/reduction applies to that damage.

But what if the Creature is Weak/Resistant to both types of damage, or the Stance damage is the same type of damage (such as when it is activated by an non-damaging Transmutation or Conjuration spell, or a spell that deals the same type of damage as your weapon) or a damage type your weapon already does? Or what if a Creature has two different Weaknesses/Resistance that apply? Some examples:

  • A bludgeoning weapon with bludgeoning stance damage against a creature Weak/Resistant to bludgeoning
  • A flaming weapon with fire stance damage against a creature Weak/Resistant to Fire
  • A bludgeoning weapon with fire stance damage against a creature with different Weaknesses/Resistances to bludgeoning and fire
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  • \$\begingroup\$ Related: What is an "instance of damage"? \$\endgroup\$
    – Ruse
    Apr 26, 2023 at 0:05
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Ifusaso re: the bounty... the two answers are basically the same. Unless there's an update to either for more clarification, IDK if there's much hope in seeing one do better than the other. \$\endgroup\$
    – ESCE
    Apr 26, 2023 at 17:15
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    \$\begingroup\$ Erm oops. Missed that Andras changed their answer after the Related question was updated. \$\endgroup\$
    – Ifusaso
    Apr 27, 2023 at 0:51

2 Answers 2

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If the type is different, weakness/resistance applies separately

There is nothing in the Arcane Cascade description to suggest that it is a separate instance on its own. It is just extra damage, like that of a Rage or an elemental rune.
Those use the word "additional" instead of "extra", but I do think it is a distinction without a difference.

It seems damages of different types count as separate instances.

  • Bludgeoning weapon + bludgeoning stance: weakness/resistance applies only once
  • Bludgeoning weapon + fire stance: both trigger weakness/resistance separately
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Each Instance of Damage can be Affected

Resistances and weaknesses are applied to each instance of damage so Arcane Cascade could trigger multiple for a single attack when adding a new instance. Adding fire damage to a bludgeoning weapon's Strike would be one such case because damage is separated into instances of damage rolls by type.

Extra damage from Arcane Cascade that matches the damage type of the weapon wouldn't be introducing a new instance of damage, but would instead be applied as any other modifier to the damage roll.

For the given examples assuming bludgeoning weapon is a 1d6 club and the target has resistance 3 bludgeoning and weakness 5 fire:

  • Club with bludgeoning stance: 1d6-2 bludgeoning, triggers bludgeoning weakness/resistance
  • Flaming club with fire stance: 1d6-3 bludgeoning plus 1d6+6 fire, each damage roll triggers matching weaknesses/resistances
  • Club with fire stance: 1d6-3 bludgeoning plus 6 fire, as above
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