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The Forgotten Realms setting's cosmology famously clashes with the Great Wheel cosmology, but large parts of it, for example the tree placement of their Outer Planes, can be easily dismissed as "that's how scholars there decided to represent the Wheel".

Yet, I have trouble reconciling the fact that Ao made the vast majority of Forgotten Realms gods mortal once with the fact that many of these gods are gods of the larger Planescape setting. Did Lolth or Gruumsh stop being around for everyone while Ao was making them experience mortality?

Is there any official document that explains what happened from the larger planar perspective?

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A minor correction to your characterization of the Time of Troubles: Ao didn't make the gods mortal, he simply locked them into their avatar forms for the duration of the event. They were only present on Faerun as their avatars, and could not act in Realmspace (the crystal sphere containing Toril and other associated worlds) outside that avatar.

To quote from Faiths and Avatars (2e), page 15:

During the Time of Troubles, the powers of the Realms were forced to either place all of their divine power in one mortal avatar or, if they exist on multiple planes, were forced to create avatars upon whose existence their entire future divine connections to the Realms were staked. Since the powers of the Realms were forced to stake so much on their avatars, these avatars were acutely vulnerable. While the death of an avatar did not mean the death of the power (Bane and Bhaal, at least, went through multiple avatars in succession before finally dying), powers could only maintain themselves in one avatar form and could not connect with their homes and power bases in the Outer Planes (if they had them).

It goes on to clarify that even during the Time of Troubles, any divine deaths were still at the hands of other gods, even if only by technicality. Bhaal's death by Cyric was via the sword Godsbane, itself an avatar of Mask; Myrkul's death by Midnight was while Midnight held some of Mystra's divine essence; Mystra's death was by Helm while trying to get to her home plane via the Infinite Staircase; Bane's death was via a combination of Mystra's remaining divine essence summoned by Elminster and Torm finishing him off in Tantras.

But as for your main question, that quote addresses that: beings like Lolth and Gruumsh were just fine outside Realmspace, but within Realmspace all their influence was limited to a single avatar, and if that avatar was destroyed and they couldn't muster another, all their connections to Realmspace would be severed and they could no longer act as deities within that sphere.

For some more information to help, Planescape's On Hallowed Ground goes into what exactly overpowers can do above and beyond other deities, and clarifies that their influence is limited only to their own crystal sphere. From page 160 of that work:

The poor prime gods don't always have the final say on their own worlds either. Some of the toughest bow to a still higher deity, an overpower who watches out for the entire crystal sphere. Each overpower is concerned with only a single sphere, and has no influence outside that realm. Chant is they've tied all their strength to maintaining the one sphere; perhaps they're simply its spirit made real.

Also, for what it's worth, FR's unique presentation of the planes only dates back to 3e; before that, it used the Great Ring the same as every other D&D setting. There were even a few Forgotten Realms works that directly crossed over with the general D&D multiverse in 2e, including the adventure For Duty & Deity, the Ravenloft novel Vampire of the Mists, the Forgotten Realms/Dragonlance/Planescape novel crossover trilogy The Lost Gods, and the classic (if not technically canon) Dragon column "The Wizards Three" where Elminster, Mordenkainen, and Dalamar hung out and made things difficult for Ed Greenwood.

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    \$\begingroup\$ This is a nice answer, and it illustrates what a complete mess FR cosmology is, or has become. 😎 \$\endgroup\$ Jul 27, 2023 at 15:51
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    \$\begingroup\$ The “rework” in 3e was really half-assed: they came up with this alternate cosmology, but then begged off from actually defining most of the planes in it; most of the planes are officially exactly the same as in the Great Wheel. The only real changes were the addition of a few FR-specific planes (which in the Great Wheel would have just been divine realms within the regular Outer Planes) and (this is the big one) that all inter-planar connections had to be through Toril, that is, you couldn’t directly move from Celestia to Arcadia, you had to go via Toril. \$\endgroup\$
    – KRyan
    Jul 27, 2023 at 16:01
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    \$\begingroup\$ But anyway, all of that has been ret-conned as “an alternate mortal theory” for the Great Wheel, not any kind of real difference. The whole fiasco appears to have happened solely because the FR authors were mad that the changes from 2e to 3e were caused by characters from Greyhawk and Planescape, instead of FR characters, and they wanted to separate the cosmologies in order to ensure that there weren’t other worlds and characters as or more important than their world and characters. They needed Mystra and Shar to be huge deals, not limited, single-plane deities. It’s all very stupid. \$\endgroup\$
    – KRyan
    Jul 27, 2023 at 16:04
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    \$\begingroup\$ And to top it all off, they seemed to forget about this whole thing from time to time, too. There are 3e-era FR products that refer to the Wheel, forgetting about the World Tree entirely. \$\endgroup\$
    – KRyan
    Jul 27, 2023 at 16:05
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Ildran Or that Takhisis is not Tiamat \$\endgroup\$ Jul 27, 2023 at 20:26

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