The rules for jumping cover a long jump that can clear horizontal distance and a high jump that goes higher but covers no horizontal distance at all. The long jump rules also include the following regarding vertical clearance:
This rule assumes that the height of your jump doesn't matter, such as a jump across a stream or chasm. At your DM's option, you must succeed on a DC 10 Strength (Athletics) check to clear a low obstacle (no taller than a quarter of the jump's distance), such as a hedge or low wall. Otherwise, you hit it.
The high jump rules state:
When you make a high jump, you leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier (minimum of 0 feet) if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. In some circumstances, your DM might allow you to make a Strength (Athletics) check to jump higher than you normally can.
Now, for example when you have Strength 18, you can long jump and clear an obstacle that's 4' high vertically (18/4 rounds down per PHB p. 7) and travel 18' horizontally. If you attempted to clear the obstacle with a high jump, you could get up to 7' high vertically if before jumping you move 10' horizontally for runway as required by the high jump rules.
Assuming an obstacle that's 5' high, which is between the vertical range of the long jump and high jump rules, which would allow a character to horizontally move 18' or 0', respectively.
Another example is jumping up to a higher point. Assume for example you are at a chasm where the other side is 10 feet away, and 5 feet up. You again could not use a normal long jump or high jump to clear that chasm, even though it feels as if you should be, if you can either jump 18 feet long and 4 high, or 7 feet straight up.
Are there any rules that allow you to long jump a shorter distance, but clear a higher obstacle in exchange? For example, jump 5' vertically but travel only 16' horizontally.