Ars Magica's fatigue and wounds model is unified and very very very vicious. You weren't planning on doing anything the next few weeks when you recovered from casting that huge ritual, were you? Well here, have a -3 for your troubles then.
Ars Magica, 5th edition, models fatigue (both short and long term) with significant detail. As you exert yourself, you are hit with larger and larger penalties to Everything before you fall unconscious. The more exertion, the longer it takes you to recover.
Long term fatigue is only recoverable through a good night's sleep and being well fed. If you don't have those conditions, be prepared to carry a penalty until you do.
The penalties are significant and absolutely shape the decisions of players.
It also makes combat very very short and very very lethal, with the winner generally being the person who lands the first good hit.
To address the specific sub-questions:
Having marched all day is covered under page 178.
Long-Term Fatigue levels are lost from
extended tiring activities, such as hiking all day
under a hot sun, or running to carry a message
between cities. The levels are lost automatical-
ly, and the number of levels lost is at the sto-
ryguide’s discretion. These levels are only
regained after a good night’s rest. One night’s
rest removes one Long-Term Fatigue level.
As the storyguide, I'd rule that experienced travellers marching all day would sustain one long-term fatigue level. At the end of the day you're tired and cranky, but nothing that a decent rest wouldn't cure. Therefore, you would have one point of long term fatigue that advances the characters from "Fresh" to "Winded." Winded has no penalty (effectively a -0, but means that fatiguing combat options start from "winded" instead of "fresh" As the next stage is -1, -3, -5, the unconscious... This is a significant option. It effectively means that a character can't benefit from in-combat exertion without paying an immediate price, and spontaneous spells hurt just that little bit more.
Short versus long rests:
Assuming you have all short-term fatigue, it takes a variable amount of time to go to the previous level. Someone who is Tired needs to have a quiet 30 minutes sitting alone to become weary, then 10 more minutes to become Winded, and 2 minutes to become Fresh.
Effectively this makes characters very wary about becoming more than winded because it costs significant time the more exertion they put out in a short period. On the other hand, short bursts of exertion can be maintained all day (to a point.)
Having exhausted yourself monday to friday means that, assuming that you've had really good rests between, will likely mean that saturday you can probably do the same. Of course, the moment your sleep is interrupted, your produtvitiy goes down the tubes.
What's worse is that maintaining this for a while forces an aging roll or gives you a penalty to your aging roll. This can be as simple as gradually decreasing your stats to "you. Have a heart attack. Goodbye." depending on your luck and the severity of the penalty. There are rules for this sort of long term exhaustion in the covenants book.