I'm breaking huge and cumbersome question Damaging transmuted state to smaller and more specific parts.
I was told previously that HP is absolute in the Mechanics of tearing apart a character topic. You can not make other damage to a living creature but HP. Even helpless creatures should be brought to death to treat their corpses as objects.
But there are spells in the PHB that may transform a living creature to an inanimate object. So the creature may be treated as object using corresponding rules. You may change its state by any means allowed for shaping objects and then bring the object back to life. And you should somehow apply all changes to the regained form.
What are RAW for the described process? I suppose that the vorpal description may be extended (not by the RAW but by common sense) to beheading performed by any means. But what about all other irreplaceable body parts such as heart? Is the instant death rule still applicable?
What if only non-letal injuries would be imposed over object and translated back to living form? For example gouging out an eye or tearing off limbs? How this transformations should be converted back to the HP abstraction? Is it ever possible to do ability damage in this way besides obviously applicable HP damage?
If ability damage may be dealt bypassing normal abstraction with direct body modification, how can it controlled by a character. Say I want to deal 4 STR damage and 2 Con damage, what body parts should I injure to do so? What skill checks (I suppose some kind of knowledge checks) need a character to perform to determine desirable destruction level?
And again about HP damage. Suppose that character was not teared or ground to dust. Only minor harm was done to a creature. How should split chips of the statue be interpreted as HP damage dealt to the original creature?
Can ever the RAW answer my questions? If RAW is insufficient, what other meaningful approaches may be used? And if we are forced to do some house-ruling (only if RAW itself does not present us decent rules) what if we allow character to treat helpless creatures as objects?