Yes, you can cast any spell of 1st level or higher using a higher-level spell slot.
The Spellcasting feature for every class that has it, such as the cleric or the wizard, includes the following sentence:
To cast [one of your class’s spells of 1st level or higher], you must expend a slot of the spell’s level or higher.
This is expanded upon in the description of "Spell Slots":
When a character casts a spell, he or she expends a slot of that spell's level or higher, effectively "filling" a slot with the spell. You can think of a spell slot as a groove of a certain size--small for a 1st-level slot, larger for a spell of higher level. A 1st-level spell fits into a slot of any size, but a 9th-level spell fits only in a 9th-level slot.
Only some spells specify an increased effect from using a higher slot. All others have the same effect regardless of which level slot they are cast in.
However, any spell of 1st level or higher can be cast using a spell slot of a higher level, regardless of whether it has any greater effect when you do so.