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In 5e, the rules state the following regarding spells with somatic and material components:

Somatic (S)

Spellcasting gestures might include a forceful gesticulation or an intricate set of gestures. If a spell requires a somatic component, the caster must have free use of at least one hand to perform these gestures.

Material (M)

Casting some spells requires particular objects, specified in parentheses in the component entry. A character can use a component pouch or a spellcasting focus (found in chapter 5) in place of the components specified for a spell. But if a cost is indicated for a component, a character must have that specific component before he or she can cast the spell.

If a spell states that a material component is consumed by the spell, the caster must provide this component for each casting of the spell.

A spellcaster must have a hand free to access these components, but it can be the same hand that he or she uses to perform somatic components.

(5e Basic rules, p.79)

Now, I take this to mean that a hand holding a focus is considered free for the purpose of Somatic components, as the focus is serving as a replacement for the 'normal' components and the rule is in place that material & somatic components can use the same hand. I also assume this still applies even if the focus is a shield with a holy symbol inscribed on it, as is the case for Clerics and Paladins:

Holy Symbol.

A holy symbol is a representation of a god or pantheon. It might be an amulet depicting a symbol representing a deity, the same symbol carefully engraved or inlaid as an emblem on a shield, or a tiny box holding a fragment of a sacred relic. The Player’s Handbook lists many gods in the multiverse and their typical symbols. A cleric or paladin can use a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus, as described in chapter 10. To use the symbol in this way, the caster must hold it in hand, wear it visibly, or bear it on a shield.

(5e Basic rules, p.49)

However, I'm not 100% certain about that; The War Caster feat in the PHB (p.170) has a benefit of being able to perform the somatic components of spells even when you have weapons or a shield in one or both hands, and that's giving me a bit of doubt as to whether or not you can use a Holy Symbol shield to perform somatic components. That may be there just for if a non-Divine caster obtained a shield proficiency or if a divine caster was casting a no-material-component spell, however.

So, the question:

When using a focus or a component pouch, does the focus remove the requirement of the (uncosted) material components, or is the focus now the (sole) material component?

If the latter is true, then the rule of "A spellcaster must have a hand free to access these [material] components, but it can be the same hand that he or she uses to perform somatic components." extends to the focus, because it's no different from the material components that the spell normally specifies. It's literally just taking the place of the normal material components as a different material component. If it's the former, then the focus is an object that removes the need for material components, but it occupies a hand that cannot be used for somatic components as it itself is not a material component.

Given the specifc phrasing of the ruling of "A character can use a component pouch or a spellcasting focus (found in chapter 5) in place of the components specified for a spell.", I'm inclined to believe that the latter is true and the focus is acting as the material component in place of the normal components, but I am not sure.

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According to 5e designer and official rules expert Jeremy Crawford:

The intent is that the shield hand can be used for a somatic component if the holy shield is used to cast the spell.

In a tweet exchange on 21-23 November 2014, @Sword_of_Spirit asked:

@JeremyECrawford Holy symbol engraved shield counts as material component, but does holding the shield replace somatic component also?

Crawford replied:

@Sword_of_Spirit The intent is that the shield hand can be used for a somatic component if the holy shield is used to cast the spell.

And further clarified that the shield arm cannot be restrained:

@Sword_of_Spirit You still need use of the shield arm to move it while performing the somatic component.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Glad to see it stated so directly! I'd accept multiple answers/sources if I could. Edit: Truth be told, the direct answer is probably more useful/less ambiguous than the old one that just said "a cleric with a weapon & holy shield can still cast spells". I think this deserves the answer. \$\endgroup\$ – CTWind Jan 12 '15 at 2:27
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    \$\begingroup\$ These twitter replies from Crawford have been codified via the Rules of Spellcasting article on the WOTC site, here: dnd.wizards.com/articles/features/rules-spellcasting (In particular, the response to the question: "What’s the amount of interaction needed to use a spellcasting focus? Does it have to be included in the somatic component?" ) \$\endgroup\$ – CTWind Jun 20 '15 at 6:40
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Can a Cleric/Paladin use a hand carrying a Holy Symbol Shield to perform somatic components?

Based on the information you have quoted, yes. As the shield is a holy symbol, holy symbols act as a focus, the focus substitutes for the material component, and a hand holding a focus can perform somatic components.

I'm not exactly sure what your second question is. If it is:

Can an arcane class with shield proficiency use a focus in one hand, a shield in the other, and still perform somatic gestures with the focus hand?

Then I would yet again say, that based on what you have quoted, yes. The shield is in one hand, and the focus in the other. The focus substitutes for the material components, and the hand holding the focus can perform the somatic component.

Update: As another answer points out, the designers recently gave a clarification that would seem to support this logic.

A divine focus can be emblazoned on a cleric’s shield, enabling the cleric to wield a weapon in the other hand and still cast spells. A wizard can hold an arcane focus in one hand and a weapon in another and still cast spells. A druid must hold mistletoe as an arcane focus, so druids must either stash their shield or their weapon to cast.

http://dmdavid.com/tag/9-more-fifth-edition-dd-rules-questions-answered-by-the-designers/

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There's recently been a response by the designers on the topic of how foci occupy hands, and it sounds like the other responses here about holy symbol shields still occupying a hand may not be the intended interpretation.

A divine focus can be emblazoned on a cleric’s shield, enabling the cleric to wield a weapon in the other hand and still cast spells. A wizard can hold an arcane focus in one hand and a weapon in another and still cast spells. A druid must hold mistletoe as an arcane focus, so druids must either stash their shield or their weapon to cast.

Specifically, this seems to be confirming the implication that foci count as material components for the purpose of the "material & somatic components can use the same hand" rule, and that the entirety of holy symbol'd shields count as a focus the same way a wand would for a wizard.

Admittedly, it doesn't completely specify "for spells that have all 3 component type requirements", but I think that's a safe interpretation based on the tone and the fact that they're not too worried about the specifics of spellcasting with full hands.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Rather than editing your old response to be literally 100% different, you might want to leave your updated answer as a new, separate answer instead. (You can still accept your own answer, of course.) \$\endgroup\$ – V2Blast May 15 '18 at 17:19
  • \$\begingroup\$ @V2Blast I'm not quite sure what to do in this case- I changed my post from citing a designer explanation that something works X way to citing an official game rules update that makes it literally just say it works X way, which seems like an upgrade. I agree it feels weird to completely change it, though. \$\endgroup\$ – CTWind May 15 '18 at 17:29
  • \$\begingroup\$ You could delete your old answer if you think it's entirely inaccurate and doesn't benefit anyone; alternately, you can edit in the new information above the old. Replacing all the text seems like it should be a different answer; it feels like it could be an attempt to get around the voting system (jumping your new answer to the top - or, well, halfway down the page where your old answer was), even if that's not your intent. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ \$\endgroup\$ – V2Blast May 15 '18 at 17:33
  • \$\begingroup\$ Went with the rollback & new answer for now. \$\endgroup\$ – CTWind May 15 '18 at 17:37
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You still need a hand free for the somatic component, but it’s not usually a problem.

Here are the general rules for somatic and material components (BD&D p. 79):

If a spell requires a somatic component, the caster must have free use of at least one hand to perform these gestures.

A character can use a component pouch or a spellcasting focus (found in chapter 5) in place of the components specified for a spell. . . . A spellcaster must have a hand free to access these components, but it can be the same hand that he or she uses to perform somatic components.

You don’t generally need to carry your spellcasting focus in hand. You just need a free hand to use it while casting spells that require it. This makes perfect sense when you consider the nature of most spellcasting focuses. Crystals, orbs, and sprigs are small items that you can keep in a pouch or pocket like any other material component. Rods and wands are specifically designed for quick handling and gesturing. Staves are no longer strictly two-handed.

Somatic components only become a problem when using holy symbols, which allow you to wear them instead of touching them. Here’s the specific rule (BD&D p. 49):

To use the symbol in this way, the caster must hold it in hand, wear it visibly, or bear it on a shield.

This means that you can easily get in a situation where you do not have a hand free for a somatic component. Note that bearing a holy symbol on a shield means attaching the symbol to the face of the shield. The specific rule allows you to do this and still use the symbol as a spellcasting focus, even though you are not touching it as generally required. However, if you also wield a weapon, then you will not have a hand free for somatic components.

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Errata to the Player's Handbook has explicitly clarified that the rule allowing for holding material components in the same hand as is used for somatic components extends to foci used in place of the standard material components:

Spellcasting

Material (M) (p. 203). The final paragraph now reads as follows: “A spellcaster must have a hand free to access a spell’s material components—or to hold a spellcasting focus—but it can be the same hand that he or she uses to perform somatic components.”

[2017 PHB Errata]

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Does the rule stating that you can use the same hand for material and somatic spell components extend to objects which replace the need for material components such as foci?

No, RAW, there is nothing which says that Foci can be held in the hand used for somatic gestures.

If I were an arcane class that obtained a shield proficiency, could I have a shield and focus and cast spells with somatic and material components perfectly fine with no equipment juggling?

No, however the equipment juggling is not as difficult as you might think. As part of your action, you may use the focus for your material components and then afterwards put the foci away, thus doing the somatic gestures with an empty hand. On your next turn, you may use your empty hand for the somatic gestures, and then grab your foci and use it for the material components. What this does cost you however is the ability to cast a spell which requires both somatic and material components as a reaction.

If I'm a cleric with a shield serving as a holy symbol & mace, am I perfectly fine casting spells without having to stow my weapon?

No, you will need to stow your weapon as part of your free action, thus losing your weapon for reactions during your turn.

In general, you can use your empty somatic hand to get components, but you can't use your filled focus hand to do somatic gestures.

This is one of the purposes of the warcaster feet. It allows you to find in melee and cast spells to full effectiveness. This is also one of the reasons why the quaterstaff was turned into a versatle weapon, so that Wizards could hold the staff in one hand while using the other for somatic gestures.

This may seem to make foci items to be an extra cost to spell casting over the component pouch, and in a way it does. The reason for this, is that foci often will have other magical properties. Foci that function as other items, such as a magic wand, or a shield with a holy symbol should be seen as a means to enhance the "realism" of the story, by allowing you to not worry about collecting various material components and worrying about how to keep track of that. Instead, you may have your foci.

These rules also prevent a spellcaster from using two foci at once, or being able to both spell casting and melee fighting unless it comes as a class feature or feat, just as a martial character needs to choose between doing ranged or melee tactics, but not both without a reduced cost in damage.

It's advised that you don't worry about these details too much unless they are causing some clear imbalance in your game however. The rules are there to clarify how these things work, not to restrict reasonable actions.

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    \$\begingroup\$ @GMNoob I not sure your first Raw answer is correct. The text on pg 203 regarding somatic gestures says "...must have free use of at least one hand..." Free use, not use a free hand. That's a small but important semantic difference because free use just means the hand can't be hindered, tied up or occupied by something other than casting the spell such as holding a shield. However, it doesn't mean it has to be empty. That means holding a focus or components in the hand while using for the somatic gestures is permissible since doing that doesn't hinder or interfere the casting of the spell. \$\endgroup\$ – Chryckan Aug 27 '14 at 8:44
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Chryckan Maybe if you have a wand, your hand can be used, but if you are holding a crystal ball, I don't see how you can say it's not hindered. Even a shield you can "strap to your arm" and say your hand is free. I don't think the semantic difference is relevant here, unless your table wants to play it that way. "Free use" generally means its not currently doing something else, like holding an item. \$\endgroup\$ – GMNoob Aug 27 '14 at 8:49
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    \$\begingroup\$ As the shield can be used as a focus in the case of clerics, it sets a precedent that it is an exception to needing the war caster feat. It is open knowledge at this point that the intent isn't to separate the material and somatic components, and this makes sense since blowing powder out of your hands for colorspray or flinging a ball of guano and sulfur at your enemy are both somatic gestures that use the same hand that the components are in. The warcaster feat seems to primarily focus on non-cleric casters since clerics have an out already. \$\endgroup\$ – Aviose Feb 4 '15 at 17:28
  • \$\begingroup\$ While balance is a factor in the free hand thing, it was to stop your odd-ball characters that dual-wield, or stop eldritch knights from using sword, board, and wand all at the same time without some cost to them (2 ability points in this case). The Shield symbol was to give clerics a natural option that makes sense based on something that people would ask about doing. \$\endgroup\$ – Aviose Feb 4 '15 at 17:32

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