There are no such rules. As Tridus points out, the game just isn't even remotely realistic, it's heroic fantasy, very high-magic heroic fantasy at that. A first level human barbarian can outrun Usain Bolt’s world-record sprinting speed— at will, without making any kind of check, for several minutes on end, while wielding a battleaxe, wearing chain, and carrying fifty-odd pounds of assorted other gear, and at worst will find himself briefly Fatigued as a result (good chance he won’t even be Fatigued, though). This is what feats (Dash, Run) and traits (Quick) can do.
Even if you wanted to houserule something like this in, which is very ill-advised because mundane warriors are already struggling mightily under “realism taxes” compared to the magic characters (even though the game isn’t realistic in the least), the game provides absolutely no metric for managing this. You’d have to houserule some quality for each weapon in the game, and there are a lot of them. It’s also worth noting that the weights of basically every object in the game are a bit higher than reality, which was a nod towards how cumbersome each object is.
As Doug points out, the real reason a ranger doesn’t want a greatsword is because it's wasted on his low Strength.
But I’ll go further: you don't want any melee weapon, regardless of how convenient it is or isn’t to carry around. You’re an archer, all your feats are for archery, the bulk of your money is spent on archery, and so on. You will never be effective in melee. After the first handful of levels, it will be detrimental to try.
Sure, get a dagger for utility purposes; later on, it’s useful to have an adamantine dagger, since it's good for digging and breaking things.
But if you’re ever trying to stab any real threat with that dagger, you, and most likely the rest of your party, are probably going to die. Stabbing is a tough gig, and archery is tougher. You’re going to need to focus on your thing, and without that focus on the other, you won’t be able to do it well enough.
The real answers, as an archer, are positioning, coordination, and if all else fails, magic. Numerous ranger spells allow you to use ranged attacks while in melee yourself; arrow mind from Spell Compendium is a particularly good one.