So after spending far too much time scouring what I could on boons and chronicle sheets, is there a running list of the boons and methods to acquire said boons? And how do race boons work if the boon is tied to the character that earns the boon?
The only way I know of to earn race boons is at conventions for random drawings or as prizes. These are not tied to an existing character and would be the first chronicle for your new character.
As far as I can tell there is no running list of all currently available boons but I do know that you can get a small handful of boons from PFS Scenarios. Almost every Sanctioned Module has a Boon, the Paizo Blog regularly posts boons that you have to earn within a certain timeframe (most often for holidays), and of course, conventions.
It is not authoritative, but there is a running list of boons on Google Docs, here
This list does not seem to include Holiday Boons. Announcements for these are on the Paizo blog, but the chronicle sheets are typically not available after the boon window.
Chronicles for Pathfinder Tales can be downloaded from Paizo directly on each Tales' product page. These chronicles are typically one-use boons.