Since you are a Dragonborn, you are using the Player's HandBook (PHB). Nearly every one of your questions is clearly explained in various parts of the character creation process, so please read through that. However, I'll give you a broad overview of what those things on the character sheet do to hopefully point you in the right direction.
Inspiration is granted by the DM for playing well, so it's not part of character creation. It lets you take advantage on 1 saving throw / Attack roll / ability check of your choice.
Proficiency bonus starts at +2 and goes up slowly as you level; the bonus is shown in the leveling table for any class. The bonus applies to any ability check / Attack roll / saving throw for which you are proficient in the associated skill or tool / weapon / saving throw ability.
Proficiencies in skills / saving throws / tools / weapons come from your class, race, and background. Some are chosen by you from a selection the rules provide, while others are granted explicitly by the rules. The little dots on the sheet are to indicate proficiency.
Every ability score has a modifier associated with it - for example, 10 grants a +0 bonus while 12 grants a +1 bonus (and the pattern continues with more/less bonus for every even score). Rolling an ability check often comes attached to a skill, in which case the bonus you add to your d20 roll is your ability modifier + proficiency bonus (assuming you are proficient). For example, a Dexterity (Stealth) check if you have Dex 14 and proficiency in Stealth would be rolled with a +4 bonus (+2 for 14, +2 for 1st level proficiency).
Passive Wisdom (Perception) is 10 + your Perception, which is Wisdom Bonus + proficiency bonus (assuming you are proficient in Perception).