Typically 4e powers don't change once you take them (broad exceptions apply, it's an exception based system).
The power you give as an example certainly does not, but that doesn't mean that it's abilities don't improve with time either.
The important thing to remember is that your to-hit and damage isn't simply a function of the power text (That remains constant), but a function of your abilities, level and implement or weapon and other items.
So for instance, you take Mind Thrust as your L1 ability, your intelligence at this point is 20, your to-hit for the power is +5 (plus a feat bonus if you took the implement expertise feat for your class), and your damage is 1d10+5.
When you level up to 2, your to-hit goes up to +6 since you add half level to that. This continues with your to-hit increasing every other level, it also goes up if you find a magic implement (your damage goes up here too!), and when you get a stat boost (yeah more damage).
Often, with encounter and daily abilities, there is a better, similar ability available in paragon tier when you start replacing abilities. For psionic classes though, you keep getting at-wills instead of encounters, so sometimes you'll find similar at-wills at later levels that look very similar to your low level at-wills.
Lastly, there are a few powers that do actually improve as you level. Normal class at-wills sometimes will get a second damage die at epic levels since they don't scale automatically. And some power swap powers (like from themes) have different power levels depending on which daily or encounter power slot they are used in.
However, under normal circumstances, powers do exactly what they say, and do not change by level.