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Albeit this question was for Pathfinder, it made me wonder.
Can a cleric prepare a lower level domain spell with some metamagic applied in the appropriate level slot, like an extended circle of protection from evil in the 4th level domain spell slot if he has the Good domain?

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Extended magic circle against evil is a Good domain spell of 4th level or lower. It can be prepared in a 4th level or higher domain slot by a cleric with access to the Good domain.

The domain slots only follow special rules regarding which spells can be prepared in them as a whole. They don't follow special rules about what levels those spells can be. You can prepare any domain spell you have access to in your domain slots as long as the slot is "big enough" to hold the spell. That includes bumping a spell up levels by adding metamagic. It's still the same spell - and so it can still be prepared in any of your domain slots.

Some argue that metamagic versions of spells should be considered entirely different spells, and so they're not the domain list and can't be prepared in those slots. I feel the rules clearly indicate otherwise; metamagic versions of spells appear in no spell lists. This interpretation, applied equally and fairly, would mean that no one could cast, say, maximized magic missile because no class gets it on their spell list. The Good domain spell list works exactly like the wizard/sorcerer spell list or the paladin spell list - the spells that appear on the list can have metamagic applied to them and stay on the list. (Bards and their inability to cast Silent spells may now fly into a frothing rage that everyone else gets something they don't. The first bard player to ask me why he can't cast a silent soundburst or silent earthquake gets the bulkiest instrument I can find crammed directly in his spellslot.)

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  • \$\begingroup\$ "Extended magic circle against evil is a Good domain spell of 4th level or lower," [Citation Needed]. I see that spell nowhere on the list, only magic circle against evil. You have to demonstrate that they are the same thing. I think they are, but I also don't think the rules ever actually state such a thing, and the opposite is equally possible. Which means you should avoid making a declarative statement as if it was an established fact. \$\endgroup\$ – KRyan Dec 23 '14 at 15:59
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    \$\begingroup\$ A wizard need not write maximized magic missile into his spellbook in order to prepare and cast it, as long as magic missile is in there. A sorcerer need not learn heightened bestow curse to cast it, only bestow curse. While the rules might not specifically spell out that a spell is still that spell when metamagic has been applied, it provides plenty of very strong examples. Please note that no maximized or quickened spells appear in any class list. If maximized X isn't the same spell as X for who can cast it (besides spell level), then maximized spells cannot be cast at all. \$\endgroup\$ – gatherer818 Dec 23 '14 at 22:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ @KRyan whoops, forgot to tag you. Also, inb4 "bards can't cast silent spells", that's the exception that proves the rule. \$\endgroup\$ – gatherer818 Dec 23 '14 at 22:04
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    \$\begingroup\$ @KRyan Wait, are you suggesting that no one can activate heightened wands and that even though "using metamagic feats, a caster can place spells in items at a higher level than normal" such a caster couldn't subsequently activate those items? \$\endgroup\$ – Hey I Can Chan Dec 23 '14 at 22:07
  • \$\begingroup\$ @gatherer818 Very good argumentation. I think they should be included in your answer. \$\endgroup\$ – KRyan Dec 23 '14 at 22:45
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"With access to two domain spells at a given spell level, a cleric prepares one or the other each day in his domain spell slot." http://www.d20srd.org/srd/classes/cleric.htm

I interpret this as a clear "no".

Example: At level 1 a cleric with air and animal domain has access to Obscuring Mist and Calm Animals. Those are the one or other. At level 2 the same cleric has Wind Wall and Hold Animal. Those are the one or the other. An enlarged Obscuring Mist (example) is not one or the other spells listed for level 2.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Can this be expanded upon? That is, why is a spell modified by a metamagic feat unable to occupy a domain slot? I don't follow how the linked text leads to an absolute No. \$\endgroup\$ – Hey I Can Chan Dec 23 '14 at 17:01
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    \$\begingroup\$ Well this is exactly what I was thinking at when I tought about the question, now let's see if someone can bring some evidence against this or supporting the other options. \$\endgroup\$ – Zachiel Dec 23 '14 at 19:47
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    \$\begingroup\$ I think it would be useful to incorporate that into the answer. Zachiel, by way of counterargument, in the spells section of that same link it says: "When a cleric prepares a spell in a domain spell slot, it must come from one of his two domains." Further, the strict interpretation joedragon puts forth mandates a cleric prepare spells every day ("a cleric prepares one of the other each day"), which, clearly, sometimes a cleric can't. I don't know what to do with that. \$\endgroup\$ – Hey I Can Chan Dec 23 '14 at 20:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ I do not see how my quote and Hey's quote cannot act together. Access to two spells, preparing 1 or the other, coming from one of 2 domains. To Hey's second point, before my quote (same SRD link) is "A cleric may prepare and cast any spell on the cleric spell list, provided that he can cast spells of that level, but he must choose which spells to prepare during his daily meditation." I believe this speaks to if you are reading preparing domain spells, you are preparing spells, otherwise why are you reading preparing domain spells? \$\endgroup\$ – joedragons Jan 2 '15 at 16:17

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