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Like with a fighter at level 20, you have 3 extra attacks. Can you cast a spell, such as firebolt, and also attack in the same turn?

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You can only take 1 action per turn. PHB, page 189:

On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed and take one action.

The "Attack" action and the "Cast a Spell" action are both actions, listed on page 192. So if you take the Attack action, you can't also cast a spell that requires 1 action to cast (such as firebolt).

The Fighter's Extra Attack feature does not alter this rule; the wording it uses is that you can attack multiple times when you take the Attack action. It does not grant you extra actions, it merely allows you to make multiple attacks with a single action.

You can take the Attack action and cast a spell that requires a bonus action to cast (such as healing word). To understand how this works, you should read the Bonus Actions section on page 189. (Too long to include here.)

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  • \$\begingroup\$ There are a few special case, not just with the bonus action, where a fighter, paladin, ... probably others can cast a spell along an attack. It is clearly spelled out though. \$\endgroup\$ – Alexis Wilke Jan 24 '15 at 12:19
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    \$\begingroup\$ @AlexisWilke Eldritch Knights and Valour Bards only. More importantly, though, there's no point trying to list every possible exception to these basic rules; I'd have to keep updating the list as new content was released. \$\endgroup\$ – Miniman Jan 24 '15 at 12:29
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The short answer to your question "Can you cast a spell and use the Attack action in the [same] turn" is:

Usually no, but in some cases, and specifically in your example scenario, yes, though not in the way you probably envisioned it.

Usually, you cannot cast a spell and attack during the same turn, as most spells, including Fire Bolt, have a casting time of 1 action, and attacking usually requires you to take the Attack action. As stated in the Player's Handbook under "Your Turn" (p. 189):

On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed and take one action.

So, normally, you cannot both cast a spell and attack. However, there are multiple ways to circumvent that and manage casting a spell and making an attack during the same turn, though none of these involve the Fighter's Extra Attack feature (PHB, p. 72), as all that feature does is grant you additional attacks "whenever you take the Attack action on your turn".

I will not go into detail of all these different ways to achieve spellcasting and attacking, but will just address your hypothetical scenario of a level 20 Fighter casting Fire Bolt and attacking during the same turn which is actually possible.

To achieve this, you have to either take the Eldritch Knight martial archetype (PHB, p. 74-75) and choose Fire Bolt as one of your cantrips either on level 3 or 10, or, if your campaign is using Feats, you can forgo one of your ability score improvements to take the Magic Initiate feat (PHB, p. 168) and choose a spellcasting class with access to Fire Bolt to take that cantrip.

This actually allows you to cast Fire Bolt and take the Attack action during your turn as early as on 3rd or 4th level, depending whether you used the Archetype or Feat method respectively. You will just have to use your action to cast Fire Bolt, and then use your Action Surge (PHB, p. 72) to use the Attack action, or the other way around.

If you choose the Eldritch Knight martial archetype, you can actually achieve this more efficiently, since the War Magic feature (PHB, p. 75) at 7th level allows you to make one weapon attack as a bonus action when you use your action to cast a cantrip, so you do not have to use your Action Surge. Though bear in mind that this allows you to only make one attack.

And if you happen to be a level 20 Eldritch Knight Fighter, you probably want to use your action to cast something a bit more potent than the Fire Bolt cantrip, since the 18th level feature Improve War Magic (PHB, p. 75) allows you to make one weapon attack as a bonus action when you use your action to cast a spell.

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If you take an attack action you may only make up to as many attacks as granted by extra attacks. So at level 20 you may make up to 4 attacks. You cannot use one of those to cast a spell.

As a fighter you can use ACTION SURGE to make a 2nd action, which would then allow you to make your attacks and cast a spell. This can only be done once per short/long rest.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Action surge is Twice a Day at level 17+... \$\endgroup\$ – Alexis Wilke Jan 24 '15 at 12:20
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Caste the haste spell. It grants a bonus action that can only be used for an attack. Each turn you can use your action to caste a spell and the bonus action to attack.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Please reread his question, that's not what he asked. \$\endgroup\$ – mxyzplk - SE stop being evil Jul 17 '15 at 13:42

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