The Magic Circle ritual says:
An affected creature whose level is lower than your Arcana check result minus 10 cannot pass through the circle, affect creatures through the circle’s boundary, or affect the boundary in any way.
The definition of teleportation is:
Teleportation takes no time. The target disappears and immediately appears in the destination that the teleporting creature chooses. The movement is unhindered by intervening creatures, objects, or terrain. (emphasis mine)
Also, generally, teleportation is considered dimensional travel, so it's not passing through the magic circle so much as bypassing it by moving through another dimension.
So from what I see, you couldn't use Magic Circle to keep someone from teleporting through it. Right?