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As a cantrip, the RAW answer should be little to nothing. On the other hand, having 2 to 40 gallons of water dropped on you from a short distance overhead should have some impact.

Such as... At what amount would the effects of the (official but unsupported) cantrip Drench be a valid interpretation? At what amount could a Concentration check be called for? Could the spell be timed to interrupt another action, in order to impose (minor) penalties?

Thanks

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By RAW, you can't do this.

By RAW, you can sort of do this.

To start with, Create Water is bound by the rules of the Conjuration school:

A creature or object brought into being or transported to your location by a conjuration spell cannot appear inside another creature or object, nor can it appear floating in an empty space. It must arrive in an open location on a surface capable of supporting it. [emphasis mine]

In other words, you can only use it to create water that is at rest within a container up to three times the volume of the water created. You can't create a 40 gallon blob of water over a victim's head.

The spell does grant some exceptions to this:

[...] or in an area three times as large -- possibly creating a downpour or filling many small receptacles.

Note, however, that neither of these are going to have the effect you're thinking of. Being in a "downpour" is much less distracting than having a 40-gallon bucket dumped on your head.

Concentration

The Concentration section lists several ways that concentration checks can be triggered. There are two that may apply here:

Violent Weather

You must make a concentration check if you try to cast a spell in violent weather. If you are in a high wind carrying blinding rain or sleet, the DC is 5 + the level of the spell you're casting. If you are in wind-driven hail, dust, or debris, the DC is 10 + the level of the spell you're casting. In either case, you lose the spell if you fail the concentration check. If the weather is caused by a spell, use the rules as described in the spell's description.

This suggests the answer is "no." A "downpour" isn't nearly as violent as the weather described here, and the Create Water spell doesn't specify concentration checks.

Your next best hope is the more general "spell" section:

Spell

If you are affected by a spell while attempting to cast a spell of your own, you must make a concentration check or lose the spell you are casting. If the spell affecting you deals damage, the DC is 10 + the damage taken + the level of the spell you're casting.

If the spell interferes with you or distracts you in some other way, the DC is the spell's saving throw DC + the level of the spell you're casting. For a spell with no saving throw, it's the DC that the spell's saving throw would have if a save were allowed (10 + spell level + caster's ability score).

So, does a sudden downpour of the type created by a cantrip "interfere with or distract" someone who is casting a spell? Eh... The rules don't say "no," but they don't exactly say "yes" either.

House Rules

If you wish to support this action (and ignore the limitations above), it probably wouldn't be too overpowering to give the victim a reflex save. On a failed save, they are slightly distracted and must make concentration checks, non-magical flames are doused, they are moderately annoyed, and so on.

See also: Creatively targeting summoning spells

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The description of Create Water overrides the generic Conjuration rules.

This spell generates wholesome, drinkable water, just like clean rain water. Water can be created in an area as small as will actually contain the liquid, or in an area three times as large -- possibly creating a downpour or filling many small receptacles. This water disappears after 1 day if not consumed.

So if there is enough open space (i.e. air) that can hold an amount equal to three times what you can conjure then you could conjure (i.e. almost any open space at all) the water over a creature. I would not let this give any mechanical benefit, though, especially in regards to combat. (so none of your suggestions). However, I would allow it situationally to give maybe a bonus to out of combat checks depending on if the PC is clever enough to give a good reason.

When you start granting bonuses like you suggested that are outside of the intended effect of the spell (especially in combat) PCs will try to over(ab)use it. Specifically if you let someone conjure water to force a concentration roll for an enemy caster, what's the point of readying an arrow, attack, or a separate spell that already has rules to do that?

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RAW 0 level spells are in no way less powerful than 9th level spells except as explicitly stated (y'know, in the rules). That being said, let's take a look at your specific queries:

Drench: You can definitely do this, even with a single casting at CL 1. It's clearly within the realm of what a 6-gallon downpour containing 2 gallons of water would be capable of.

Concentration:

If you are affected by a spell while attempting to cast a spell of your own, you must make a concentration check or lose the spell you are casting. If the spell affecting you deals damage, the DC is 10 + the damage taken + the level of the spell you're casting.

If the spell interferes with you or distracts you in some other way, the DC is the spell's saving throw DC + the level of the spell you're casting. For a spell with no saving throw, it's the DC that the spell's saving throw would have if a save were allowed (10 + spell level + caster's ability score).

In this case the amount of water doesn't matter at all as long as your spell affects an opposed caster. The concentration check DC is just 10+ your casting modifier, so don't expect this to work reliably. Some DMs may allow opponents' a Reflex save to avoid the effects.

Interrupts: Not any more than any other standard action could. I suppose you could do the old bucket-of-water-over-the-door trick, but, outside of casting the spell beforehand and roleplaying your way into a contingency effect, the best you can do is ready an action to cast the spell, which may or may not work as an interrupt depending on the nature of actions in your game and the nature of the composite action you are hoping to interrupt.

As a note, you can also inflict major penalties, like death, with this spell, either by using it to drown enemies or by using airborne jugs to deliver lethal masses of falling water. It's just that using this spell to do such things is often ineffective and inefficient compared to the other tools in the spellcaster's arsenal.

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