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When a druid or ranger summons creatures using the conjure animals or conjure woodland beings spells, do the creatures act on the round they're summoned, or do they not act until the following round?

The spell text for both spells doesn't seem to specify:

Roll initiative for the summoned creatures as a group, which have their own turns.

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The creatures act on their initiative, just like everyone else. This can lead to them acting in the round they were summoned, or not.

Allow me to illustrate, with the thrilling tale of Dave the Druid and Bob the Barbarian, who were larking around in a swimming pool when Bob said something about Dave's mother:

  1. A fight breaks out between Dave the Druid and Bob the Barbarian.
  2. They roll initiative; Dave gets a total of 15, and Bob gets a total of 10.
  3. On his turn, Dave casts Conjure Animals and summons Harry the Hunter Shark.
  4. Harry rolls initiative, and gets a total of 11.
  5. It's now Harry's turn. He does his very best to eat Bob.
  6. On his turn, Bob gets the hell out of the swimming pool cos a shark just tried to eat him.
  7. The round ends, and a new round begins.

Alternatively, if Harry rolled higher than Dave in step 4:

  1. A fight breaks out between Dave the Druid and Bob the Barbarian.
  2. They roll initiative; Dave gets a total of 15, and Bob gets a total of 10.
  3. On his turn, Dave casts Conjure Animals and summons Harry the Hunter Shark.
  4. Harry rolls initiative, and gets a total of 20.
  5. On his turn, Bob gets the hell out of the swimming pool cos there's a shark in it.
  6. The round ends, and a new round starts.
  7. It's now Harry's turn, and he, I dunno, looks for some fish to eat or something.

Rounds are more or less continuous, so really all this means is that the summoned creatures will always have their first turn some time after being summoned. How long after depends how close they come to their Druid's initiative while still being below it. Since getting a higher initiative roll than their Druid will lead to a longer wait, it's actually to your advantage to summon creatures with low Dexterity.

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Creatures summoned by those spells act on their initiative, regardless of when they're summoned

Jeremy Crawford, official 5e rules designer, answers this question here:

Conjure Animals Initiative - If my initiative is 10, and I conjure animals who roll a 15 initiative, do they go on my turn or wait until the next round to start their attacks?

When you cast conjure animals, you roll initiative for the summoned creatures, and they take their turns on their initiative, which has no relation to yours.

Is it the same with Conjure Minor Elementals?

If a spell tells you to roll initiative for a creature you summon with that spell, the creature acts on its initiative, regardless of your initiative. Such spells include conjure animals and conjure elemental.

So you'd hope for a roll lower than yours to get the summon to act earlier, or wait for the next round to add them to initiative?

A spell that instructs you to roll initiative abides by the initiative rules, unless the spell's text says otherwise. For example, if it tells you to roll, and you roll a 15 for a creature you summon with the spell, the creature takes its turn on initiative count 15.

[deleted tweet:] You’re init is 15. You summon on your turn and you roll a 14 for the creature’s init. Does it then move after you, or does it get added to init list at the end of the round?

If you roll 14, they go at 14.

In short, they act precisely when their initiative comes up in the turn order.

As another user clarifies in response to the "you'd hope for a roll lower than yours" tweet:

Remember that initiative is c[y]clical so it doesn't make a difference. They are guaranteed to go between your current turn and your next.

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