As far as 5E published material goes, there are really only three - Lost Mine of Phandelver (in the STarter Set), Hoard of the Dragon Queen/Rise of Tiamat, and Princes of lemental Evil.
Lost Mine of Phandelver has a well-described village, Phandelin, that will make a good base of operations. Phandelin is a frontier town at the beginning of a gold rush, which means there is enormous scope for campaign development. If Wave Echo Cave, and others, start producing lots of metal then the area will grow fast. Like all frontiers, it will atract all sorts of shady characters (otherwise known as "PCs" and "those PCs do business with" :-)
Same goes for Princes of Elemental Evil and the town of Red Larch. I am less read on that adventure, so I can't comment as much. I haven't read Hoard of the Dragon Queen or Rise of Tiamat, so I don't know how well those cover your requirements.
As mxyzplk states above, Lesser Mine of Phandelver module doesn't have enough information for an entire campaign, it only takes the PCs to level 4 or 5.
The two adventure paths take characters from low level up to maybe level 15, so are a source for an entire campaign. PoEE has some hooks and ideas for side adventures, but you would still have to do some work to provide an entire campaign.
The books have regional maps which show what is around the towns for several days travel, which fits in with your "unable to ever travel more than a day's journey" requirement.
Both adventures are set on the Sword Coast, an area that has been written about extremely extensively over the last couple of decades. High-level protagonists have been wandering all over the Silver Marches, so there is scope for all levels of play, from village hero adventures all the way to world-shaking epics. In addition, the Drow city of Menzoberranzan is under this region, opening up another world of places to adventure within a few days of your starting village.
Maps for the adventures can be purchased from the artists: Sean Macdonald and Mike Schley produced maps for PoEE, Mike Schley produced maps for LMoP.
Jared Blando sells a larger scale map of the Sword Coast which shows the area covered in LMoP, PoEE, and other published aventures (including the Baldur's Gate, Icewind Dale and Neverwinter Nights series of computer games). I have purchased this. I plan to print it on board and hang it on the wall during game sessions.
For reference, I am starting a campaign this week. I am using the Lost Mine of Phandelver, but I have set it on the border between Aglarond and Thay, in a part of the Forgotten Realms called The Unapproachable East. This sets me up to send the characters through the Desert of Desolation modules, which are set in the desert of Raurin, to the east of Aglarond. The main reference book I am using is the D&D 3.5 Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting. There is a lot of work in converting what is in that book to 5E, especially toning down the monsters and NPCs to fit bounded accuracy.