The Tools are There
The Princess Bride scene is so good because it includes good banter, stylish moves, and good storytelling. You can capture those with the RAW system.
The attack/defense rolls in WoD, especially nWoD, are very abstract. A basic attack with Weaponry could involve any number of weapons, wielded with a wide range of styles and flourish. A defense roll might represent parrying, dodging, blocking, or something more exotic.
To run a scene like that in WoD, you will need to narrate character actions in a compelling way, and leave room for in-character banter.
Example, using a single PC dueling an NPC (excuse the hammy dialog, short notice):
GM: Erica leaps down from the balcony, slashing at you with rapier.
"Now, we shall finally have our dance!"
GM rolls Erica's attack while
Player rolls defense for his character, Étienne. Player is
successful, which tells him how he can react in-narrative.
step quickly to the right, moving out of her way. I flick my head to
the side avoiding the tip of her blade, though it looks at first like
she scored a touch. I turn back toward her, smiling, "You didn't
think it would be that easy, did you?"
Helping Your Players
To make it really play well, get your players in on the action. Encourage then to ham up to the style.
If one falters or is shy getting started, you can help them out by elaborating on their character's actions (without changing them). I've found doing this keeps players, especially the less-talkative ones, more engaged in combat scenes.
Example, from an actual Vampire game I GM'd (more gruesome style than above, same idea)
Player: I attack the Sheriff with my Claws.
Rolls are made, player is successful in dealing damage.
GM: Excellent! He holds up his sword in an attempt to block you, but
you avoid the sharp edge entirely as you rake your claws down his arm,
cleaving flesh from bone and slicing through his silver watch. He seems almost more upset by the watch you have destroyed than by his injuries. Its broken pieces clatter to the ground.
This rewards the player for their successful blow, and provides an example of the kind of descriptions they can add to combat actions. A simple "I attack" has become a mini-story.
Because banter, bluffs and faints are important to this style ("I'm not really left-handed!"), you can incorporate WoD's social challenges into a combat.
For example, you can allow a character to add some kind of mind game to their normal action for the round. They attack with Manipulation, opposed with Composure. If successful, apply a penalty to the defender's next combat defense, or the attacker's next attack (whichever is narratively appropriate).
This is partly a house rule, but works largely within the framework and spirit of RAW.
I've found that adding in rolls like this doesn't prolong or unbalance combat. It just shifts part of the scene from Physical to Social contests.