No: you always cast the spell as long as you have an appropriate slot to spend (if the spell is a leveled spell), take the required time, and provide the necessary components.
To what I think is your intent: does casting the spell require any kind of test before I see the effects I intend?
Sometimes: generally "no," but there are two big classes of exceptions.
Most spells (37 of the 53 in the Starter Set Rulebook, by my count) require nothing other than the declared intent and provision of required elements (slot, time, components).
The exceptions fall into two categories described in the Starter Set Rulebook:
Many spells specify that a target can make a saving throw to avoid some or all of a spell's effects.... Some spells require the caster to make an attack roll to determine whether the spell effect hits. (Starter Set Rulebook p.23, Saving Throws and Attack Rolls)
So the specific mention of a saving throw or an attack roll in an individual spell's description may add that requirement. Examples include:
Burning Hands (ibid. p.24)
Each creature in a 15-foot cone must make a Dexterity saving throw...
Guiding Bolt (ibid. p.26:)
Make a ranged spell attack against the target.