The cerebrilith that Ruut mentions has the Tanar’ri subtype and has “Infinite Layers of the Abyss” as its environment in Expanded Psionics Handbook, i.e. it is a type of proper demon. Chaotic evil outsiders are not necessarily that, and the SRD doesn’t include that information, so this just confirms that cerebrilith is a valid choice.
In addition, Complete Psionic has shadow efts, which are evil outsiders repeatedly called “demonic” even though they are from the Plane of Shadow. They also understand Abyssal (along with Common and Celestial), but cannot speak any language. Your mileage may vary on whether or not they can sire tieflings; one expert categorically denied that they were actually fiends and could do so. Plus they look like skeletons made of shadow, based on the illustration, so even if they count as demons I’m not sure they could physically create a tiefling.
Book of Vile Darkness and Fiend Folio seem to lack anything psionic, at least as relates to fiends, and Manual of the Planes, and Planar Handbook are also lacking in any psioinic fiends. Both Fiendish Codices, Hordes of the Abyss and Tyrants of the Nine Hells, do not seem to feature psionics.
Incredibly, Wizards’ long-running psionics column on their website, Mind’s Eye, does not appear to have ever produced any more psionic fiends. (Note the list of monsters at the bottom; I didn’t and just went through the whole archive...)
Beyond these, that expert I mentioned earlier confirms that cerebrilith is the only fiend printed as psionic since 1st Edition, but also that this is more a matter of practical concerns for TSR/WotC than it is canon. So he suggests two things:
All fiends generally can be psionic, the same way mortals can. The default/normal thing is for them to pursue magic, but they some are just born favoring psionics.
Some lesser-known (read: unpublished) tanar’ri and yugoloths, in particular, are likely to exist that strongly favor psionics.
Also, psionic talent could just come from your human side. All of the common races can have it, and it’s not so rare. It’s entirely possible that this is a gift that doesn’t relate your fiendish heritage at all.