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If I roll a successful attack roll, then a damage roll that is greater than the remaining HP of a monster, do I have to apply all of it or can I leave him at 1 or even 0 HP? It doesn't Instant Kill him.

Basically, I want to interrogate the goblin at the beginning of the starter set for 5e and he only has 1 HP left before I roll this hypothetical roll.

Do I have any other options? (such as a capture or something like that)

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Yes, you must apply all the damage--but you can still leave your target alive. Except in the case of instant death: "when damage reduces [one] to 0 hit points and there is damage remaining, [one dies] if the remaining damage equals or exceeds [one's] hit point maximum." (PHB p.197)

Monsters and Death

Most DMs have a monster die the instant it drops to 0 hit points, rather than having it fall unconscious and make death saving throws....

Knocking a Creature Out

...When an attacker reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack, the attacker can knock the creature out. (PHB5 p.198)

Clearly any melee attack1 can be optionally declared incapacitating rather than lethal. However, the conclusion to draw from the earlier section is that even ranged attacks don't immediately kill a monster: you've got time to stabilize the goblin just as you would an ally. It's just that rarely anyone ever tracks it, and for ease of play we just leave a wide swath of assumed-dead opponents in our wake. (But you may not want to leave that wake: I suggest this as a way to keep your PCs from becoming a bunch of murderous cretins.)


1 - note that this includes melee spell attacks; clarification in November 2015 Sage Advice

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You can choose to KNOCK-OUT the creature when you deal damage with a melee attack

On page 198 of the 5e PHB it says when you drop a creature to 0 hp with a melee attack you can choose to knock it unconscious instead of killing it.

From there tie it up with your rope and then wake him up and, bam! You can interrogate your prisoner.

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