A hidden ranger with Extra Attack attacks a surprised creature. Do both attacks benefit from Advantage, or just the first one?
If the ranger used Horde Breaker on another creature, would this attack benefit from Advantage?
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From the PHB, page 195:
If you are hidden—both unseen and unheard—when you make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.
So, the first attack is rolled with Advantage, but it reveals the attacker's position, so all consecutive attacks lose the advantage.
Make note that the rule does not state that only the attacked creature notices the attacker. Instead, all creatures that are able to see or hear the attack notice the attacker when he makes his first attack. If they can't see the attacker directly because the line of sight is obstructed, they still know roughly where he is.
Arguably, if the Ranger is in a position to Hide again from his secondary target (e.g. the Ranger is hidden from him behind a tree), he could do that and once again attack with advantage. However, hiding requires its own action, so the Ranger would have to have a special ability to Hide on the same turn as it's attacking.
Based on the above answer, if you are unseen and unheard, then you have advantage. Normally making an attack reveals you. However, certain combinations of effects could negate this, such as being under the effects of greater invisibility, silence and mirror image all at the same time, because:
The rules for Unseen Attackers and Targets clearly states:
When a creature can't see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against it.
If you are hidden at the time, the rules add:
If you are hidden--both unseen and unheard--when you make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.
Having your location revealed does not mean you have been detected. There are many places in the rules that talk about the difference between being seen, detected, and having a known location, including the rules for unseen targets:
Combatants often try to escape their foes' notice by hiding, casting the invisibility spell, or lurking in darkness.
Being hidden, invisible, or in darkness do not cause you to stop being detectable with other senses, nor do they hide your location. For example a creature walking around with invisibility can be heard and their location is known.
It also contains different rules for attacking a target when you know or don't know their location:
When you attack a target that you can't see, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. This is true whether you're guessing the target's location or you're targeting a creature you can hear but not see. If the target isn't in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the DM typically just says that the attack missed, not whether you guessed the target's location correctly.
The rules for Hiding also make a distinction:
You can't hide from a creature that can see you clearly, and you give away your position if you make noise, such as shouting a warning or knocking over a vase.
Making noise only gives away your position, it does not "break hiding" or let creatures automatically detect you. The rules for unseen attackers mirrors this wording. There is no uncertain terms, having your location revealed does not mean you are detected.
The Skulker feat also makes the same distinction:
When you are hidden from a creature and miss it with a ranged weapon attack, making the attack doesn't reveal your position.
Here is the chain of events:
At the end of this sequence, the Ranger has attacked 3 times with advantage, and has given away their location 3 times. They remain hidden, unseen, and unheard (although your DM may rule that their actions have made sufficient noise to reveal their location again).
The Ranger can now stealthily move away from their location since the enemy will likely attack that position. However enemies can try and guess the Ranger's new position, and they will most likely send someone to investigate the position by moving to gain line of sight, and also using the Search action.