Damage is calculated as follows: Damage Die + Strength Modifier + Equipment Modifiers + Feats and Class Features
Damage Die: This is determined by the type and size of weapon. A longsword deals 1d8 damage. There is a table on the SRD (and in the Player's Handbook) that lists each weapon's base damage. There is another table slightly farther up that page which shows how to modify that weapon's damage for each size.
In your case, Chakram, Whip Knife, and Web Dagger are all non-SRD weapons, so that table won't help you. Your damage dice don't change as you level up, however, so they remain 2d6, 1d6, and 1d8.
Strength Modifier: This is determined by your strength score, and can be calculated by (STR-10)/2, round down. For two-handed weapons, multiply the result by 1.5 (and round down again). For off-hand weapons, multiply the result by 0.5 (and round down).
Equipment Modifiers: These are bonuses provided by magical properties on your equipment. A +1 sword deals +1 damage; a Flaming sword adds +1d6 fire damage, etc.
Feats and Abilities: Some feats (such as Weapon Specialization) add directly to your damage, as described in the feat itself. Other feats, such as Power Attack, can modify your damage under certain conditions. Examples would be too numerous to list in this answer; check your feats and class features to determine if you have any that apply here.