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PHB p. 195 states that involuntary movement does not provoke opportunity attacks:

You also don't provoke an opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your movement, action, or reaction.

Is there a general rule somewhere about involuntary movement and how it interacts with other effects?

The question arose at our table about what happens if a creature is dragged via the Thorn Whip spell across an area of Spike Growth. Does the involuntarily moving creature take the damage from the spikes as if he'd voluntarily moved through them?

Logically, yes, if you're being dragged through spikes, you take damage from them as if you'd walked through them. But logically, if I drag you past my ally, my ally would be able to make an Opportunity Attack, likely more easily than if you were moving under your own power. Presumably that is not allowed for balance reasons rather than versimilitude reasons, so I wonder if the same should apply to other effects?

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The is no general rule (that I can find) regarding involuntary movement.

However, Jeremy Crawford - one of the lead designers for 5e and official go-to-guy for rules clarification - has said:

When a spell's description uses "enter" in relation to an AoE, the entering has to be voluntary only if the text says so.

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The spell Spike Growth will damage a creature moving into or within its area of effect even if the movement is involuntary, such as the effect of forced movement from the spell Thorn Whip.

The Spike Growth spell description says:

When a creature moves into or within the area, it takes 2d4 piercing damage for every 5 feet it travels (PHB, pg 277)

There is no general rule regarding involuntary movement and there is no caveat in the spells description which might limit its effect in regard to involuntary movement.

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