I can't find Summon Monster. Are there any other spells that can summon Outsiders other than Celestials, Fey, and Elementals or is that it?
Is it maybe a conjuration school wizard thing? (I did google.)
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Outside of Conjure Animals, Conjure Celestial, Conjure Elemental, Conjure Fey, Conjure Minor Elementals, and Conjure Woodland Beings, there are a few more summoning spells, although I suspect none are what you're looking for.
The Find Familiar and Find Steed spells summon extremely specific creatures that are basically Wizard and Paladin class features respectively.
Planar Ally is a Cleric spell that summons a celestial, elemental, or fiend of the deity's choice. But you don't get to control it, so the results of this spell are pretty much entirely up to the DM.
Gate can summon any extraplanar creature that you can name, but you likewise don't get to control it, and, of course, it's a 9th-level spell.
You might be interested in the Unearthed Arcana article which came out today (nice timing for this question), and offers a variety of demon-summoning spells.
In summary: There is no equivalent to the Summon Monster spells of previous editions.