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The description of the Sanctuary spell (PHB p 272) says:

You ward a creature within range against attack. Until the spell ends, any creature who targets the warded creature with an attack or harmful spell must first make a Wisdom saving throw. On a failed save, the creature must choose a new target or lose the attack or spell.

The description of the Sentinel feat (PHB p 169) says:

When a creature within 5 feet of you makes an attack against a creature other than you...you can use your reaction to make a melee weapon attack against the attacking creature.

If a character with the Sentinel feat is also warded by Sanctuary, and an attacker fails the Wisdom saving throw and attacks a different target within 5 feet of the character, will this still trigger the melee attack reaction?

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Yes, the attack being caused by Sanctuary will not prevent it from triggering Sentinel. You've already quoted the important rule:

When a creature within 5 feet of you makes an attack against a creature other than you (and that target doesn't have this feat) you can use your reaction to make a melee weapon attack against the attacking creature.

There's no conditions placed on this. If a creature within 5 feet of you makes an attack against a creature other than you, you get your reaction to hit them. It doesn't matter what kind of attack, it doesn't matter what caused the attack. Any attack triggers Sentinel.

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    \$\begingroup\$ I feel someone should mention the final clause of Sanctuary, just in case the QA (question asker?) isn't aware that this will result in Sanctuary ending. "If the warded creature makes an attack (even a reaction attack as per Sentinel) or casts a spell that effects an enemy creature, this spell ends" \$\endgroup\$ – Airatome Jan 24 '16 at 5:02
  • \$\begingroup\$ I think it's worth explicitly calling out the "can" in that quote, because it means you can choose not to invoke your Sentinel reaction in order to preserve Sanctuary. \$\endgroup\$ – Robotnik Feb 14 '18 at 5:42
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Absolutely.

The trigger for Sentinel is "When a creature within 5 feet of you makes an attack against a creature other than you". An attack is rolling a d20 to overcome AC - if someone does that then you can thump them.

The reason for making the attack is irrelevant; its the fact of it that matters. Sentinel does not care if the attack was made as a result of Sanctuary or because of what that guy said about our Sharon.

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