Wizard A wants to cast Minor Illusion on Target B, specifying black discs in front of the eyes. Does it work?
In other words, are status effects something Minor Illusion can inflict?
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It's debatable whether you could place the discs or not. However, even if you could, it would have little effect. Minor illusion is static, and requires an action to move. It doesn't attach to objects in any way. However, a character is assumed to be moving around within their 5 foot square. The second they take a step, or even twitch their head, their eyes will no longer be immediately behind the discs, so they'll see just fine.
This use of minor illusion will not work to blind an opponent. As soon as the black discs are placed in an enemy's eye (whether or not this can be done is beyond the scope of my particular answer), the enemy is physically interacting with the black discs.
Physical interaction with the object reveals it to be an illusion, because things can pass through it... If the creature discerns the illusion for what it is, the illusion becomes faint to the creature.
So, as soon as the discs are placed, they become faint and no longer block the enemy's vision.
You cannot place an illusion within another solid creature.
In addition to the answers already given, spells generally require a line-of-sight to the target (in this case, the space the ocular fluid occupies). You do not have line of sight to the inside of the other creature's head, due to those very eyes getting in the way.
With a larger illusion — fog, for instance — you might be able to place the illusion's point of origin outside of the target's body, but then they'd be subject to the conditions the other answers mention.