Intelligent Items [SRD] & DMG 3.5 mention: "In general, less than 1% of magic items have intelligence."
Like artifacts, intelligent items are never encountered as random treasure [d%] AFAIK.
Let's use a player Wiz-17 as an example, with access to all arcane spells in the PHB, with the Craft Magic Arms & Armour and Craft Wondrous feats and with enough XP/gp to spare. The PC has a +3 Animated Mithral Small Shield that he wants to imbue with sentience. The questions;
How do I manage this as a DM according to RAW? Source?
If allowed, are there any limitations for this player? (e.g. regarding alignment, access to divine spells, etc)
Where does the intelligence/sentience actually originate?
Another (related) question, from a DM-standpoint only;
- Can an Artifact be imbued with intelligence according to RAW? (Devious plans are forming here..)
Or is this just it-has-no-statistics-thus-at-DM-discretion-only stuff?
Answers with (any) sources/references would be appreciated. Even sources from other versions are welcome at this point, although it's intended for 3.5. Much obliged.