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Can a 5e cleric use a rod or a staff with wizard spells in it?

I have a Drow Cleric of Lolth, and she carries a scepter/rod that can petrify enemies (top end), and then use a melee-targeted disintegrate effect to shatter them (weighted, bottom end), before they revert to flesh. When I looked in the book, though, both flesh to stone and disintegrate are for wizards; clerics cannot learn them.

Could she still use this item, in some way, or is it wizards/sorcerers only? (I'm not sure how Use Magic Device works, in 5e, or if it is just for Rogues.)

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If the device does not specifically restrict its use to a class (or race, or level), then anyone can use it.

See "spells" on p.141 of the DMG: there's no blanket restriction on who can cast a spell from a magical device. There is even guidance on what to do when the spell cast implicates a spellcasting modifier and the character isn't a caster; this makes it clear that non-casters, even, can generally use magical items.

The rogue's "Use Magic Device" class feature circumvents class restrictions when they exist. Consider, for instance the Tome of the Stilled Tongue which requires attunement by a wizard or the Dwarven Thrower which requires attunement by a dwarf. (DMG pp.208, 167, respectively)

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IIRC, Magic Items are only class specific if it specifically says so. Otherwise, it would only require whatever method of attunement. (some items are attuned upon pickup by you or by your foe).

pg 242 on spell scrolls Via @CTWind

If the spell is on your class’s spell list, you can read the scroll and cast its spell without providing any material components. Otherwise, the scroll is unintelligible. And additionally: If the spell is on your class’s spell list but of a higher level than you can normally cast, you must make an ability check using your spellcasting ability to determine whether you cast it successfully.

This could be applied towards a magic item casting a spell as well but seems like DM choice on that matter (I personally would allow anyone to cast it after attunement)

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