Globe of Invulnerability states:
Any spell ... can't affect creatures within it, ... Such a spell can target creatures and objects within the barrier, but the spell has no effect on them. Similarly, the area within the barrier is excluded from the areas affected by such spells.
First the globe only affects spells; effects that are not spells can get through even if they are magical in nature. For example, a bard's Cutting Words, a Cleric's Turn Undead, a Monk's Ki, a Paladin's Smite, a Sorcerer's Wild Surge (unless it says "you cast ...") or a Warlock's Hurl through Hell are all unaffected. Similarly, the effects of magical items (unless they say "you cast ...") ignore the globe. (+1 spear works, magic missiles cast by wands would not).
Further, there is nothing in the wording of the spell that prevents the people and objects within the globe from being affected by spells indirectly. For example, a person standing on a rope bridge protected by the globe is still going to fall if I target the parts of the bridge outside the globe with a disintegrate spell. Similarly, I can Conjure Animals outside the globe and send them into the globe to bite you.
Then there are the edge cases.
For example, Conjure Barrage says "You throw a nonmagical weapon ... into the air to create a cone of identical weapons that shoot forward ..."
This one could be interpreted either way: if it is an area of effect type spell then the globe will block it if it is the creation of arrows, say, outside the globe which get flung by the spell then it should get through. You will need to work these ones out with your DM.