I can not access the d20pfsrd site from this computer so I used archives of Nethys, once more.
If they were feats, it would say so. But instead, it says the opposite, that they can be learned instead of feats:
A wizard can learn an arcane discovery in place of a regular feat or wizard bonus feat.
Arcane discoveries are class abilities.
Arcane discoveries are wizard-exclusive. They are not unlike archetypes (you could call them minor archetypes or alternate class features) in which they replace a bonus feat from the wizard progression, OR a regular feat the wizard character would receive from leveling.
Note that a discovery cannot be gained with a bonus feat from another source if multiclassing.
Since it does not says anything, you could dip 1 level of wizard and unlock the discoveries to purchase with level advancement feats.