Seems to me the rules allow for these combinations during your TURN in a ROUND ...
- Action (Any Spell)
- Action (Any Spell) -> Action Surge (Any Spell?)
- Action (Cantrip) -> Bonus Spell
- Bonus Spell -> Action (Cantrip)
- Action (Cantrip) -> Action Surge (Cantrip) -> Bonus Spell
- Action (Cantrip) -> Bonus Spell -> Action Surge (Cantrip)
- Bonus Spell -> Action (Cantrip) -> Action Surge (Cantrip)
Casting a Bonus Spell will limit all Action Spells during your TURN to Cantrips (1 action casting),
non-cantrip spells or cantrip (>1 action casting) will exclude the ability to use a bonus spell during your TURN, mattering which comes first.
There is also a rule that also states you cannot cast more than one spell during your TURN, except if that other spell is a cantrip. So the 2nd action of an action surge would be a cantrip.
The only exception to this would be if the bonus spell specifically stated it could be used before/after a non-cantrip/cantrip (>1 action casting) spell in the same TURN. This allows a specific spell's text to side step the rules.
Reactions can be used in the same ROUND as a bonus spell so long as they do not occur during your TURN unless it is specifically a Cantrip with a casting time of 1 action, keeping in mind 1 action is not equal to 1 reaction.
Counterspell (lvl3/1 reaction) cannot be used during your TURN with a Bonus Spell both because it is not a cantrip and also because it has a casting time of 1 reaction.
Hellish Rebuke (lvl1/1 reaction) can be used during the same ROUND as a Bonus Spell, if it is is triggered in response to being damaged outside your TURN. So if a creature on its TURN does damage to you, you can still use this spell as a reaction even if a Bonus Spell was cast on your TURN earlier in the same ROUND. If you incur this damage during your TURN, possibly by triggering a readied action and/or another creatures reaction, you would not be able to use this spell if you had already cast a Bonus Spell during your TURN, and if this reaction happens first, would not be able cast a Bonus Spell after it during your TURN.
TURN and ROUND generally clarifies how these rules should be handled, as well as the type and casting times of the spells.
NOTE: I've edited this to mark the Action (Any) > Action Surge (Any) option. There is a line in the Bonus Action section PH p 202 "You can't cast another spell during the same turn, except for a cantrip with a casting time of 1 action". The assumption is that this only relates to Bonus Action spells, but its wording is more broad and likely needs to be clarified by WOTC in future printings. There is some clarity to this by posts on Sage Advice hosted by wizards which suggests Action surge should allow any level spell be cast as the 2nd action.