Yes to the specific scenario; Maybe for other scenarios.
I think the correct answer on this can be very situation specific. The answer, as it relates to whether a green dragon in the belly of a purple worm can Command it to vomit, is yes. Although the dragon is blinded by virtue of being swallowed, it can still see the target of the spell because of it's blindsight ability. Even if it can't see the worm's head or external body (which aren't a requirement for casting), the lining of the stomach is right adjacent to it in this scenario and ripe for targeting.
However, Jeremy Crawford's tweet does create situations wherein a blinded creature with blindsight could not target a creature because that creature is specifically hiding:
Blindsight lets you spot an invisible creature in range, but that creature can still try to hide behind something with Stealth.
By my reading of this, it wouldn't matter if the creature with blindsight were blinded or not. The blindsight ability would permit them to attempt a perception check against the opposed stealth check within their range. Were they not blinded, they could attempt the perception check beyond their blindsight radius.
I think the common misperception is that blindsight is having perfect vision with the stated radius. But that is not the case nor the intent. Instead, blindsight simply allows you to perceive within the stated radius to the extent that your perception check permits. If a creature is not attempting to hide within that radius, then you'd perceive it as one normally would with regular senses. If something is trying to hide, then you can attempt to find them regardless of effects that might blind you, effectively or otherwise (i.e. being blinded, fog cloud, magical darkness, etc.)
So if the blinded dragon were to succeed on a perception check to spot a rogue hiding within their blindsight radius then yes, they could target them with a spell. Otherwise, they could not because they aren't sure where to target the spell.