If you are to use a Limit Curse, also use it as a way to engage the players
Many games involve the use of curses or cursed items, and usually, such a curse goes to only one person or member of the party. When such a curse is implemented, the DM also usually has in mind an adventure planned out on how to remove the curse. It is not given to someone as a way to nerf them permanently or to teach them a lesson, but as a way to enhance the narrative.
If you are to go with your idea of a Limit Curse, then be very careful to impose it not only as a means to teach the player a lesson or new way of playing, but also have an adventure in mind such that the entire party -- including the warlock -- can benefit from the use of this curse.
So I recommend to you, if you are going to go with this plan, to do it in the following way:
Create a valid narrative reason for why the warlock gets the curse in particular
Is he perhaps the greediest and always the first to loot? Then introduce it as a cursed magic item. Now you are doubling this curse as a lesson against avarice
Is he the weakest? The one who always stays in the back no matter what? Then introduce the curse after the BBEG has nearly killed everyone in the party but him. The BBEG will let the party survive so they can tell the tale of what happens when someone crosses the BBEG, and leave a curse on the last one standing as living proof of it
I assure you that for any given reason, you can find a way to introduce a relevant narrative hook that leads to this warlock receiving this curse
After cursing the warlock, provide a means to remove it
Allowing the curse to be removed is proof that you do not intend to nerf this player over a simple disagreement
I recommend you create an adventure for the party that will last for a certain number of sessions (ending with the removal of the curse), and over this time, demonstrate to the warlock how much better the party does if he conserves his spell slots
Finally, assuring the warlock that there is a means to remove the curse allows you to actually impose a serious penalty on him while he is under the curse, because the severity of the curse doubles as a motivation for him to go on this quest. After all, a light headache after each casting of the spell is not a guarantee to motivate someone to pursue a dangerous quest
Now, that said, here are some curses you can use on your warlock.
Impose a Wild Magic Surge Penalty
There is nothing I have seen that frightens players more than having a Wild Magic Sorcerer trigger a surge in the middle of combat. Bestow upon your player the Curse of Wild Magic, and now any time the warlock expends a spell slot, you may force a Wild Surge to trigger (or you may roll for it).
This is actually a net positive curse for the player because there are more positive things on the Wild Magic table than there are negative or neutral things. But the risk of casting a 5th level fireball centered on the caster is enough to make anyone think twice before using a spell slot.
I have personally played Wild Magic Sorcerers, and my experience of it is, knowing I can surge at any time (we house-ruled and increased the probability of a surge according to expended spell slot level) makes me want to use my cantrips more than my spell slots, and when I do use my spell slots, I do so conservatively. I am talking about casting a spell only when I've found an opportunity to end the encounter with it.
On the other hand, my party mates are always afraid when I actually cast a spell and surge, even when nothing bad happens as a result of the surge. The moment of tension lies with the fact they have to be there to withstand it, and maybe it might go bad. Now, I think that this will encourage your other players to stop the warlock from spamming his spell slots because of this very feat. But it is not a guarantee that they will.
I think involving Wild Magic in your game is in itself going to make the warlock hesitant to spam his spells on minions. But in case you disagree, you can do another curse...
Impose Constitution Checks for use of spell slots
A relatively safe curse you can bestow involves Constitution checks, which is described in the PHB as:
A Constitution check can model your attempt to push beyond normal limits, however.
So your curse can be the Curse of No Magic, such that the "normal limit" of the player becomes to not expend spell slots at all. Now you may ask for a Constitution check any time they expend a spell slot.
On a failure, I recommend that they simply get the Poisoned condition. This is benign enough because it can be removed by Lay on Hands, Lesser Restoration, or perhaps an Anti-Toxin. It is annoying enough, though, because it consumes resources to cure it, and not curing it means disadvantage to attack rolls and ability checks.
In a game I DM, I have my players roll Con saves or be Poisoned due to environmental factors. However, instead of focusing on the mechanical downsides, I remind them that they are feeling sick and have headaches, and they RP that way afterwards. I believe this can actually provide a good motivation for your warlock to also seek out the cure to the curse because who wants to feel sick all the time?
However, with all that said, there is one thing I will strongly suggest to you to do instead.
Frame Challenge: Don't change anything, you are babying your players
You have nerfed your boss fights due to one player's play style. You are actually encouraging your problem player to continue because he knows you will adjust your style for him. So do not do this, and start presenting a real level-appropriate encounter for the party.
If someone dies, that is on them. Really, do not baby your player characters. Do not nerf your bosses or pull your punches. They have to learn to play smart, or you will learn that they are more creative than you might think at first, even when you cannot think of a way they can possibly survive this encounter.