Ask for Help
Unlike many video or computer games, tabletop games are expected to be social experiences. Creating a character without the help of a more experienced player (or preferably, your GM) is going to be frustrating. Your first option should be to ask the rest of the table for guidance.
If everyone at the table is new, consider asking online (like you are doing now). There are many excellent guides online that talk through the character creation process in more depth.
Failing either of these, you might go to your local game store for D&D organized play and ask someone there.
Carefully Read the Rules
All of the questions listed above can possibly be known by carefully reading the entire PHB. The entire first section of that book deals in character creation: races and classes are not all the choices you face. In particular, you seem to have missed the Backgrounds section which explains personality traits, bonds, and other things.
Compare Your Work To Others'
Look at other people's completed character sheets. You can search for pre-generated characters online and the 5E starter box comes with several. This would explain what goes in each cell or line on the character sheet.
The PHB also includes "Building Bruenor" as an example of creating a 5E character. Each section will mention the choices are involved with creating Bruenor and how they contribute to the character. Even as an experienced player, I found these boxes helpful my first time in 5E.
Do It Wrong
You will almost definitely make mistakes. Take this character into a game with more experienced players and let them correct you. Don't get discouraged. Treat it as a learning experience.